Project Topic:

INTERNAL AUDIT AS A TOOL IN ARCHIVING THE ORGANIZATIONAL OBJECTIVE (A CASE STUDY OF AFRI BANK NIGERIAN PLC)

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 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 67 ::   Attributes: Abstract, Table Of Content, Questionnaire, Data Analysis  ::   1,750 people found this useful

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ACCOUNTING UNDERGRADUATE PROJECT TOPICS, RESEARCH WORKS AND MATERIALS

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ABSTRACT

The notion of the auditor being bound or a watchdog is gradually changing for the better as internal auditing has undergone tremendous changes in recent past.

The actual functions of the auditor is often surrounded in secrecy or held in some kind of awe.

Major notes of internal auditing have not been clear to the majority of people in the society. In view of numerous corrupt practice, frauds and embezzlement often uncovered by probe tool has often been questioned.                                                                                              

It is the realization of this that I have set out to look critically into internal audit department of Afribank with a view to finding whether effective internal auditing practices ensure effective control. The mode of appointment, independence and duties of the internal Auditor was looked into an determining whether the internal audit department is being operated as a management or efficiency audit.

The finding shows that internal auditor is not completely independent and mode of operation has a combination of characteristics of various types of auditing especially the operation type of audit.

Nevertheless a high degree of internal control exists in the bank. In consideration of improvement in some area, recommendations are proposed.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

The system of controls adopted in any economy greatly determines the development and growth of that economy. To ensure optimization in money, materials machine, time, resource and management of men, controls are essentials.

These controls are installed by many organizations including banks to check how effective and efficient they maximize their resource. One of such controls commonly used to minimize wastage and guide plans to their eventual accomplishment is internal auditing. Auditing has been in existence for many years, it was in ancient Egypt and the great mercantile establishment of the middle ages. This shows that internal auditing can neither be neglected nor under rated in our modern economy for it was borne out of the complexities of modern business climate and transaction involved. In that other management of various large business organizations and government concern recognized internal auditing as a valuable machinery in achieving and objective deemed accurate at a given point in time.

The term “Audit” is from a Latin word “Audire” which means hr hears. This is because the account of an estate domain were checked by having them called out of those who complied them to those in authority. With the growth of trade and commerce the need for more accurate method of recording business activities arose. This, auditing is more a question of he hears but a whole process where by the books of account and vouchers of business entities (including charities, trusts) are subjected to critical examinations by professionally qualified and independent account (Auditors) on such a detail as will enable them from an option as to their truth and fairness. The Auditing is the bridge across the creditability gap created by the separation of management from ownership.

The complexity of the art of management extents to increasing aware of business fraud, embezzlement and the cash squeeze which often cripple many companies. The management has to look inward in order to uphold the space of activities and keep abreast with the changes in their immediate and external environment, and this can only be achieved a good and effective internal control system of which internal auditing is a major section. A writer maintained that the existence of an efficient and effective system of internal control both in design and operation which is the responsibility of management with best to prevent fraud or at worst help to detect such fraud at the earliest opportunity.        

It is a function carried out by an independent staff in audit department with the sole aim of reporting on the fairness and truly of financial statements. However since the internal auditors are employee of the firm or the establishment concern, independence is not always achieved.

The comprehensive coverage of an internal audit upon several factors. A general rule is that department should of course have as much freedom as possible without interference from the management. In such circumstances the internal auditor will have a greatly enhanced share in recommending a new and conducting investigations where appropriate. The terms of references should be defined as lack of this may lead the department and those in another.

 To avert this ugly incident and ensure greater coverage during investigations, management issues guidelines to heads of division to always make necessary documents/records/files available to audit staff as may be demanded by them while performing their duties.  

A proper audit work should be able to:

  1. Review the accounting systems as related to internal control.
  2. Examine financial and operating information for management.
  3. Review the economy efficiency and effectiveness of operation.
  4. Review the implementation of corporate policy plans and procedures.
  5. Assist in implementation of new accounting system.
  6. Providing a training ground for both financial and general management personnel.

Internal Audit functions can help to spot out deficiencies in the systems so as to evolve corrective measure at the earliest opportunity. Internal auditor appraise, analyses and report upon the policies and methods employed in the bank.

The duties of internal Auditor to the general performance of the whole organizations can not qualified which makes it very importance for all organization to maintain a good internal control system maintained by qualified chartered accountants.

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Internal control system may be insufficient based on some predicaments. These may include lack of segregation and assignment of duties to accounting staff. Also the scope of duties of internal audit unit are so wide and their scales of operations so low as well as the shortage of qualified staff to carry out internal auditing and accounting duties.

Independence of Accounting officer can easily be maneuvered by management which can affect the internal audit system of an organization clearly defined as a result of two or more dishonest staff can collide to override the efficiency of the internal control system. The criticisms of the internal control system have been extended to the banking industry hence this study of internal audit as a tool for effective management.

PURPOSE OF STUDY

This study aims at assessing the internal audit as a subsystem of internal control being operated in the bank.  

i.  The purposes are outlined below

ii.  To aid good accounting system

iii. To eliminate wastage and losses

iv. To survey the internal audit unit of Afribank Plc, Head quarters      

    at  Victoria Island so as to review the predominant audit practice

      in the bank.

 v.   To point out deficiencies in the internal control system used by

      the bank.

vi.   To appoint out the implications of the system and suggest

       Recommendation that will bring improvement.

vii. To evaluate the expenditure procedure of the bank.

To ensure adherence management policies procedures, secure completeness and accuracy of record and safe guard all assets.

 

  1. SIGNIFICANT OF STUDY.

       The ignorance of the public as to efficient contribution of internal audit department to efficient management makes this study essential. It is the believe of some people that internal audit is not necessary as it delays jobs, while some think it is only to detect frauds and misappropriate on, so this project will makes clear the merits of having a source of internal audit.

        Secondly, inability of workers to efficiently and effectively utilize resources and lack of proper control mechanisms has led to wastage of human resources, time financial and materials resources. This study will help management in bringing about greater efficiency and effective use of resources and this same management cost. E.H Woo if (1988) (FCA) maintained that a great deal of the work of an internal auditor is curled with the evaluation of systems of internal cheek, conservations with officials (the result of when was later conformed by examination of records) and general seripling of records.

            Though many researchers have been conducted system, one can say that this study will contribute in no small way to the available interactive.

            This study makes more, insight into the deficiencies in current internal audit practices in the banking section and suggests useful innovation for making necessary changes in both the organization and implementation into internal audit function as it obtains in Afri- bank Nigeria plc.

         Lastly. This study will at most expose the benefit of this great department to companies who do not have such, so that they can establish this control department without delay.

 

  1. STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESES

         In this section the hypotheses selected in chapter one is tested. Relevant question from the question form the questionnaire aroused to test the hypothesis

 

HYPOTHESIS 1

Ho: - Internal Audit is not a source of help to efficient management operations

Hi: Internal Audit is a source of help to efficient management operation.

HYPOTHESIS 2

Ho: The recognition accorded to the internal Auditor in the organization hierarchy has not enhanced the system of the organization.

Hi: the recognition accorded to the internal Auditor in the organizational hierarchy has enhanced the system of the organization.

 

  1. SCOPE OF The STUDY

         Various measures of internal control systems are considered in Afri-bank, but more concentration world be made on internal audit aspect for the purpose of this study.

         Accounting systems and related internal control measure, the position, the independence of the auditor as well as the slope of his works is the areas to be studied.

 

  1. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

         In carrying out this study, it is important to have a set of assumption to base the study

  1. that internal auditing helps in making efficient management of the company’s resources by evaluating the other control departments.
  2. That fraud is reduced to the barest minimum that when it occurs most often then not it is easily discoursed.
  3. That the responses to the questionnaires are true and accurate.
  4. That the internal audit unit in the bank has adequate knowledge of practice of the organization.
  5. That the resporident co-operated by giving the information demanded from them without reservation.

            Certain problems and limitations are expected to face study like this, such problems are lack of resources or time to study or go ground another divisions of the bank.

            Also, some staff may not like to reveal information, which they regard as classified, deputes the fact that the manager of the bank has given the manager of the bank approval.

            A case study approach will be adopted which will be extensively and intensively carried out by personal calls on the bank. The main method of data and information collection will include both primary and secondary sources. The primary sources will be through personal interview with the intense Audit department’s staffs. Questionnaire will also be designed and distributed.

            The secondary sources are textbooks and journals.

 

  1. DEFINITION OF TERMS

            It is necessary that clear definition of some technical terms and words are given to avoid any possible confusion that may arise because of their usage.

1.         FINANCIAL AUDITING: It is sometimes referred to as external auditing or simply as auditing the American Accounting Association committee on basic Accounting concepts (1972) has defined it as “A systematic process of objectively obtaining and evaluating evidence regarding assertions about economic action and events to ascertain the degree of correspondence between those assertion and established criteria and communicating the result to interest users.

            Also the consultative council of Accountant defines Audit as “The independent examination and expression of opinion on the financial statement of an enterprise by an appointed auditor in pursuance of that appointment and in compliance with an relevant statutory obligation.

 

  1. INTERNAL AUDITING: A.H. milligram defines it as “An independent appraisal activity within an organization for the review of accounting financial and other operations as a basic of services to management. It is a managerial control, which functions by measuring and evaluating the effectiveness of other control.

            It is a vital part of internal control and forms the eves and ears of the board in the enterprises. It is also a series of process and techniques through which an organization own employee ascertain for the management, by means of first hand on the job observations, whether established management controls are adequate the effectively maintained, records and reports financial, accounting and other wise reflect actual operation and results accurately an promptly and each division in carrying out the plans, policies and procedure for which it is possible.

 

  1. INTERNAL CONTROL: the institute of chartered accountants of England and Wales define it as “A whole system of control, financial or other wise established by the management in order to carry out the business of an enterprise in an orderly and efficient manner, ensure adherence to management policies, safeguard the assets and secure as far as possible the completeness and accuracy of the records”.

            But the definitions given by a special committee report of the American institute of corporate Accountant (A.I.C.A) is more impressive. It said that “internal control comprises the plan of organizations and all of the co-ordinate methods and measures adopted within a business to safeguarded its asset, check the accuracy and reliability of its accounting data promote operational efficiency and encourage adherence to prescribed managerial policies.

            In this paragraph, we will consider the definition in detail.

  1. The whole system internal controls can be seen as single procedures (Example clerk A checks the calculations performed by clerk B).
  2. Financial and other wise: the distinction is not impotent perhaps financial include the use of control accounts and other wise may include physical access restrictions to computer terminals.
  3. Established by the management: internal control system are established by the management, either directly or by means of external consultants, internal audit, or accounting personnel.
  4. “Carry on efficient manner dearly the converse is unacceptable in any business.
  5. Ensure adherence to management policies: Not all management have expressed policies, but as an example a budget is an expression of management policy and adherence to the budget can be achieved by procedure such as variance analysis.

Another example might be the selling prices of the enterprises products being kid down by the management and controls existing to ensure that these prices are adhered to

  1. Safeguard the assets: Obviously allowing assets to be broken, lost or stolen is unacceptable and procedures are always devised to safeguard them. Examples are locks and keys, the keeping of a plant register regular reviews of debtor balances etc. An aspect of this which is often over looked is the payment where no benefit have been received as payment for piece of work not done or the setting up of liabilities where no benefit has been received as in fraudulent purchase and subsequent embezzlement of goods by employees are both examples of failure to safe guard assets.
  2. And accuracy of the records: Again, the converse is unacceptable. Examples of procedures to achieve this include checking of the work of one clerk by another or, the use of control accounts, independent comparison of two sets- of records e.g. stock records and stock, or piece-work payments and good work put into store.

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