In Nigeria, one of their major problems is the problem of generating income through taxation. Since it is known to everyone that taxation is a way of generating income to the government, it is not suppose to be a problem especially in corporate taxation.
Developed countries like America have effective corporate tax system which has gone a long way to making their economy better. However, this tax being paid by business organization also has effects on their profit both in a positive and negative way which is the purpose of this study.
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Corporate taxation serves as a vital factor in the economic planning and development of a nation as well as social change. In Nigeria, in context, income tax was first introduced in 1904 by Lord Lugard who enacted the first income tax statue when he was the High commissioner for Northern Nigeria. The colonial government in Nigeria introduced various taxes in order to tap the financial resources from the people for their own personal operations. In that situation, government taxation was an extension of the network exploitation of the colonized people.
The post colonial states unavoidably inherited and sustained taxation as one of the government sources of revenue.
Tax has been defined by so many people in the different ways. An oxford advanced learners dictionary by Hornby, A.S, (1977) sees tax as money compulsorily levied by the state or local authorities on individuals, properties, or business. Amaechina, P.U (1995) defined tax as a levy which a government imposes on the income of the citizens of a state for which the government makes no direct benefits to the tax payer (s). Tax according to Agyes A.K (1983) is the transfer of resources from private sector to public sector in order to accomplish some of the nation economic and social goals. However, the universality of taxation accounts for its description as a popular way of raising revenue by Turner and Hunt (Okoye 1998). In that light or view, Benjamin Franklin is quoted to have argued that in this world, nothing is certain but death and tax.
The corporate tax we know was introduced in 1965 in Britain. Companies are taxed at different rate from individuals and union corporate business was followed during the second world war by the recent development of this tax is attributed to the fact that until after the second world war, the corporate form of business was practically non-existing in Nigeria. Being recent, it has therefore, not received as much adequate attention from the populace as personal income tax has. However, with the growth of the economy, the corporate sectors has expanded considerably bringing more; sharply into focus the problems of taxing corporate income and at exploiting a potentially sources of revenue.
Over one thousand (1000) companies were subjected to company’s income tax in 1963 compared with only about three hundred and fifty (350) in 1960, comparing these figures with the great number of business organizations now in existence presently we have over three thousand companies which are subject to company’s income tax. Companies income tax has become crucial not only from point of view of revenue but also from the point of rivals of stimulating rapid industries. Also, this has answered one of the reasons why government has so much interest in tax as a source of revenue. The huge sum of money generated by the government from corporate tax has made them to set out several decree/Act in respect of corporate tax.
In Nigeria, the company tax Act was enacted in 1979, several amendments were made to the original ordinance of 1961 where separate laws were enacted for the tax of income and profit of both individuals and companies. Also from 1961, the law (companies income Tax Act-CITA) has followed several amendments till April, 2007 with the rate of 30% on companies profit with effect from 1stJanuary 1996. Generally, tax is imposed on the net taxable income of a company. It is strongly believed that there are many effects on the profit of business organizations due to corporate taxation.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
There has been an outcry of various business organizations in Nigeria over their profit due to high level of corporate tax. Despite their tax avoidance and evasion, there is no difference. This ugly development have placed some companies where they are not suppose to be, hence, a compelling need to put an end to this situation through proper problem identification.
The problems include the following:
However, companies shall ratify these problems facing them.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research work is being undertaken in order to identify the effects of corporate tax on companies’ profit. These are hope that this study will help to correct the negative aspects of corporate tax on companies’ profit.
Furthermore, since corporate taxation is way of raising income for the government, it is important to know that it helps the government to finance its expenditures being drawn up in the budget. It also helps the government in the provision of infrastructural facilities and social amenities as well as other services. This tax also helps the company to make more profit in increment of shares etc.
Thus, this research work on this topic is very necessary in providing a lasting solution to unhealthy problem of tax avoidance and evasion through inefficient and ineffective corporate income tax administration and collection in companies in Enugu state in particular and Nigeria as a whole.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work “the effects of corporate tax on the profitability of Business Organizations (A Case Study of First Bank of Nigeria PLC)”covered an area in Enugu which is the first Bank of Nigeria in Okpara Avenue to discuss on how their profits are been affected by the tax paid to the government.
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study which is supposed to cover the whole companies in the country was restricted to a particular company in Enugu State only because of time, finance and management constraint.
There was not enough capital to spend in transport and fact finding as well as respondents especially the branch manager not co-operating as was expected together with the reluctant of workers in different sections in answering some of the questions asked. Not withstanding, all these problems did not prevent the continuation of this research work.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Corporate tax:A tax imposed on the income or profits of companies operating in a country.
Net taxable income:Is the financial statement of a company with modifications.
The Company Income Tax Act-CITA
A law that regulates the taxation of all limited liability companies doing business in Nigeria (Private and Public Limited Companies) other than those engaged in petroleum operations.
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