Background of the Study
The values, beliefs, and behavioral attitudes that both employers and workers have in the workplace are diverse. Personnel are the backbone of every company and are essential to both production and income growth.However, for workers to operate successfully and efficiently; there must be great unity between the organization's management and the workforce (Chen et al. 2018). Due to the inherent opposing interests in compensation or the terms and circumstances of employment, conflicts are inevitable in work organizations regardless of how social factors connect to one another (Tom & Shepherd, 2017). Conflicts and union disagreements have wasted a lot of time and labor hours in Nigeria's industrial sectors. Numerous Nigerian organizations' development and operations were impeded by this circumstance (Ojielo, 2002). Similar to this, studies in Nigeria have emphasized that despite several attempts by policymakers, macroeconomic issues including low income and a high unemployment rate persisted (Asaleye et al., 2018;Asaleye et al., 2018). Therefore, good management of industrial dispute can aid in preventing the deterioration of Nigeria's unemployment problem.
The majority of disputes between management and employees often begin as minor grievances, but if they are not resolved, they can lead to slow work, workplace sabotage, high staff turnover, low morale, absenteeism, a loss of human energy, decreased job satisfaction, low productivity, and a host of other negative effects that are bad for workplaces.Even with the presence of a labor union, workplace friction cannot be completely eliminated as diversity increases. Industrial conflict is a dispute between an organization's owners and its employees. Industrial conflict is the disagreement that develops when opposing and incompatible aims and ideals are held by various people or groups (Asamu, 2015). However, it creates space for strikes when workplace disputes happen often. Employers are finally forced to give in by a strike. The majority of the times, strike activities are utilized to alter the negotiation process and achieve significant concessions from the workforce, much like what the nation is currently dealing with in terms of ASUU and the federal government.In order to reach an agreement, collective bargaining is therefore viewed as a process involving meetings, demands, discussions, counterproposals, and even intimidation and threats.
Today's workplaces, either in the government or the private sector of a country's economy, are mostly composed of a variety of interest groups with a wide range of objectives. These many objectives and concerns are always at odds with one another (Ekwoba et al., 2015). As a result, it is unlikely that workplace conflict can be completely eliminated, but it may be recognized and handled for the overall good of all partners in companies.Because of this, collective bargaining has evolved over time into a flexible method of managing and resolving interpersonal conflicts between employees and management. The technique has worked well as a conflict deterrent, preventing acrimonious industrial actions and guaranteeing the development of long-lasting industrial peace and cooperation in workplaces.
Furthermore, collective bargaining is a way of determining salaries, working conditions, and other elements of employment through discussion between employers and collectively organized employee representatives(Abercrombie et al. 2010). It is believed to be a tool for worker engagement in the economy, the expansion of citizenship rights into the marketplace, and the settlement of industrial disputes.The ability to persuade someone to agree to your conditions is referred to as having negotiating power, according to Chamberlain (2015). Or, to put it another way, the cost of my refusal to accede to your demands is my leverage in negotiations. This percentage indicates how much you have influenced me to accept your proposal.Similarly, my negotiating power is the cost of disagreeing with me opposed to the cost of agreeing with me." This assumes that collective bargaining is a decision-making process with a single overarching goal: the negotiation of an agreed-upon set of rules to control both the substantive and procedural parameters of the employment relationship between the negotiating parties (management and union).The substantive terms govern salaries and working conditions, as well as other employment relationships, whereas the procedural terms govern the mechanism that the parties want to use in resolving disputes or other parts of their collective relationship.
Collective bargaining is thought to be a very effective tool for settling problems in industries, based on the procedures and functions. However, evidence suggests that this was not always the case. The remark is that in certain circumstances, the crisis that leads to collective bargaining in labor relations, between employees [union] and employer's representatives, is not always satisfactorily addressed.Rather of settlements emerging during negotiation, conflicts happen, and at times, disagreements, deadlocks, walkouts, and breach of agreement occur. The dispute between the Nigerian Labour Congress and the Federal Government of Nigeria is an excellent illustration of conflicts over, and disregard for, agreements established through collective bargaining.Following the consequences of severe working circumstances on its members, the Nigerian Labour Congress has adhered to all procedural norms of discussion with the Federal Government, which is the employer of its [NLC] members, on substantive problems.However, after each settlement, the Federal Government refused to follow the agreements, resulting in strikes, protests, and more strikes, and the Government remains steadfast in doing what it wants.Because of the complexities involved, there is no model that adequately describes how collective bargaining should be employed in the midst of disagreement (McCarter et al, 2018; Liu et al., 2017). Collective bargaining is, by definition, a hard, time-consuming, and aggravating process. The ultimate aim of every negotiation is an agreement, which may or may not address all of the problems in contention.However, deliberate refusal to honor collective agreements reached through the consensual process of collective bargaining is common among employers and management representatives of some public organizations when such processes are jettisoned, resulting in information gaps and worsening the situation (Feicht et al., 2017).
Conflict of interest is an intrinsic component of labor-management relations in the workplace. Obi (2013) described workplace conflict as an act of discontent and dispute used by either employees or employers of labor to exert undue pressure on each other in order to get their demands.This viewpoint is compatible with Muhammad (2014) and Kazimoto (2013)'s definition of workplace conflict as a collision of interests or aims in worker-management relationships. According to this concept, most industrial conflicts are caused by economic and aim mismatch in the absence of shared values in workplaces.However, via the use of collective bargaining machinery, it is feasible for labor and management with opposing aims to connect peacefully, settle complaints or disagreements by working toward consensus, and reduce the likelihood of non-productive conflict escalation.Despite the lauded purpose of collective bargaining as a true weapon of industrial peace, no day in Nigeria goes without some kind or threat of industrial action, particularly in public sector enterprises.Thus, the most common issue in Nigeria in recent years has been the persistent industrial action (Uma, 2013; Okuwa& Campbell, 2011). If it is not the National Union of Teachers (NUT) or the Academic Staff Union of Universities (ASUU), they believe it will be health workers or another key public sector union.As a result, public sector employees' trust in collective bargaining is rapidly eroding. This is due to the fact that the sole reason for industrial action in this sector is the harm done to the collective bargaining process.Given the foregoing, the relationship between employees and their employers is not without friction. However, collective bargaining is a method used to resolve labor disputes amicably between employees and employers.Because of their incapacity to pay employees on time, Nigeria's present democratic administrations have experienced more industrial disputes than ever before.In this regard, this study looks into the influence of collective bargaining on dispute resolution in public sector organizations, with a focus on Lagos State University of Education in Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Collective bargaining appears to be in a horrible and pitiful state in the Nigerian public sector institution by today's standards.According to Ibietan (2013), the mechanism and process of collective bargaining are not given solid foundation, particularly in Nigerian public sector companies.He went on to say that employers or level of organizational commitment of some public organizations are guilty of perfidy or purposeful unwillingness to honor collective agreements reached through the consensual process of collective bargaining.Similarly, Fajana and Shadare (2012) argued that, in general, collective bargaining has seen significant policy elevation, but less in terms of seriousness and efficacy in various industrial sectors in Nigeria.Ekwuoba et al. (2015), Owoseni (2014), and Bello and Kinge (2014), on the other hand, claimed that collective bargaining is a true instrument of conflict management and has played an important role in conflict resolution in Nigerian public sector organizations.As a result, there is a broad range of views on the usefulness of collective bargaining as a dispute resolution strategy among the country's public sector enterprises.Currently, there appears to be no consensus of view on the subject of research, and empirical validation is limited.As a result, there is a dearth in study in this area of strategic relevance to long-term industrial harmony and the promotion of amicable industrial relations in Nigerian public-sector organizations. Against this context, the purpose of this study is to broaden the scope of the investigation by investigating the influence of collective bargaining on conflict resolution in public sector organizations, with a focus on the Lagos State University of Education in Nigeria.
The main objective of the present study will be to examine the impact of collective bargaining on conflict resolution in Public sector organization specifically in Lagos State University of Education, Nigeria. Other specific objectives of the study include;
From the objectives of the study above, the following research questions will be derived to give the present study a direction;
The following were hypothesized in the present study;
H0: There is no significant impact of collective bargaining on conflict resolution in Lagos State University of Education, Nigeria.
H1: There is a significant impact of collective bargaining on conflict resolution in Lagos State University of Education, Nigeria.
H0: There is no significant relationship between collective bargaining and conflict resolution in Lagos State University of Education, Nigeria.
H1: There is a significant relationship between collective bargaining and conflict resolution in Lagos State University of Education, Nigeria.
H0: There is no significant impact of perceptions of employees on collective bargaining as an accommodative device for conflict resolution in Lagos State University of Education, Nigeria.
H1: There is a significant impact of perceptions of employees on collective bargaining as an accommodative device for conflict resolution in Lagos State University of Education, Nigeria.
Significance of the Study
The present study is of significance to the general populace specifically in assessing the efficacy of collective bargaining on conflict resolution in Lagos State University of Education, Nigeria.
Firstly, the outcomes of this study will reveal the relevance of the ecological approach to the management of the collective bargaining option for effective conflicts resolution in Public sector organization in Nigeria.
Secondly, the study aims to aid the general public and employees specifically to know the factors that militates the efficacy of collective bargaining on conflict resolution and how to reduce them.
Furthermore, the findings of this study will help the government to adopted adequate strategies in resolving conflict among her workers by providing adequate needs to the employees.
The study is also designed to aid scholars and academicians, particularly those working on the efficacy of collective bargaining on conflict resolution in Public sector organizations in Nigeria apart from the educational system and will also fill the existing gap in literature.
Scope of the Study
The study was conducted in Lagos State University of Education, Nigeria. The study will be carried out within the academic timelines hence necessitating the study to be undertaken between July, 2022 and November 2022.
Operational Definition of Terms
Conflict: Conflict is defined as the totality of behavior and attitudes expressing antagonism and contrasting orientations between individual owners and managers on the one hand and workers and their organizations on the other.
Conflict Resolution: Conflict resolution is defined as the means and activities that facilitate the peaceful settlement of conflict and punishment.
Collective Bargaining: Collective bargaining is the practice of establishing and implementing treaties by selected representatives of management and labor (Damachi, 2008).
Organization of the Study
The study is organized into five chapters. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope of the study. Chapter two will highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three will deal on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four will concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five will give summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
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