1.9 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The term motivation is derived from a Latin word movere meaning “to move”. In this context motivation represents those psychological process that cause the arousal, direction and persistence of voluntary actions that are goal directed” Terence Mitchell (1997). Managers need to understand this psychological process if they are to successfully guide the employees towards accomplishing organizational objectives. Let us examine the historical root of motivational concepts.
The concept of motivation is based on the idea that every human experience involves a causcution factor and an effect from the cause. One authority maintains that are seven essential causes. There are
i. The urge arising from bodily need
ii. The urge to succeed and achieve
iii. The urge to avoid failure and disappointment
iv. The urge to recognition and approval
v. The urge to security
vi. The urge to experience something new and approval
vii. The sex urge
The manager must be aware of these motivating forces and should use the knowledge of these forces in carrying out his assignments.
The concept of motivation centers on the idea that motivation is shown by a change in behaviouras a result of experience. The manager must know the various elements of human behavioiur. Which are the foundations of motivation. There are seven aspects of motivation advanced psychologist these are:
ii. Personal characteristic
vii. Reaction to thwarting
The seven aspects function as individuals strive for goal attainment. Earlier experience has prepare the individual ready for new experiences when new situations are presented. The manager must focus on teaching employees to accept and operates new procedures in such a way that none of them feel thwarted. He must also be realistic enough to know that the ideal must not always be attained and should give enough thought to ways that might turn employees away from non-adaptive environment.
Individual performance is of high relevance for organization and individual alike. Showing high performance when accomplishing tasks results in satisfaction, feeling of self-efficacy, and mastery (Bandura, 1997; Kanfer et al, 2005). Moreover, high performing individuals get promoted, awarded and honoured career opportunities for individual who perform their jobs well are much better than those moderate or low job performing individuals (Van Scotter et al, 2000).
Job performance assesses whether a person performs a job well. Performance is an importantcriteria for organizational outcomes and success. A good employee performance is necessary for the organization since an organizational success is dependent upon the employee creativity. Innovation and commitment (Ramlall 2008). Good job performance and productivity growth are also important in stabilizing our economy by means of improved living standards, higher wages, an increase in goods available for consumption, etc (Griffin et al, 1981). Giffinet al also argue that therefore research for employee performance is also important to society in general.
Employee motivation and job performance seems to be related e.g in the U.S performance is in some cases measured as the number and value of goods produced. According to Hunter and Hunter (1984) crucial in high performance is the ability of the employee himself. The employee must be able to deliver good results to have a high productivity. However, job performance is more than the ability of the employee alone. Herzberg (1959) and Linder (1998) refer to the managerial side of performance. According to Herzberg (1958).
Performance is: Let an employee know what I want him to do. This implies that an organizations hierarchy and task distribution are also crucial for a good job performance.
Job performance are based on the individual factors which are: personality, skills, knowledge, experience and abilities. Some researchers even argue that a person’s personality has a more specific role in job performance.
1.10 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
the following problems are identified with employee motivation and job performance.
supervision: to decrease demotivation in this area, employers must begin by making wise decisions when appointing someone to the role of a supervisor. Be aware that good employees do not always make good supervisors. The role supervisor is extremely difficulty because it requires leadership skills and ability to treat all employees fairly.
Salary: The old adage “you get what you pay for” trends to be true especially when it comes to staff members. Salary is not a motivator for employees, but they do want to be paid fairly.
Interpersonal relationship: Allowing employees a reasonable amount of time for socialization (e.g our lunch, during breaks) helps them develop a sense of team work.
1.11 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between employee motivation and job performance. The specific objectives guiding this study are:
1. To examine the relationship between salary administration and job performance.
2. To examine the relationship between promotion and job performance.
3. To examine the relationship between staff recognition and job performance.
1.12 RESEARCH QUESTION
The following research questions are posed to guide the study.
1. Is there any relationship between salary administration and job performance?
2. Is there any relationship between promotion and job performance?
3. Is there any relationship between staff recognition and job performance?
1.13 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1. Management of liquid facilitated limited: The findings would benefit the management of liquid facilities ltd implement and enhance strategies that can motivate their employees and improve job performance.
2. Contributions to research: This study would contribute to the existing body of knowledge on effect of motivation on employees.
3. It will help future scholars who will endeavor to undertake a study on motivation and performance.
Management of other industries will also benefit from the outcome of this study.
1.14 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study is delimited under the following:
a. Content scope:This study investigate the relationship between employee motivation and job performance.
The independent variable is employee motivation. The dimensions are salary administration, promotion and recognition.
Secondly, the dependent variable is job performance. The measures are productivity profitability and effectiveness
b. Geographical scope: This study is domicile in liquid facilities limited Eleme.
1.15 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
In carrying out this research, the understated constrains were experienced financial constrains.
Epileptic supply of electricity
Reluctant attitude of respondent
Accessibility to the relevant information through website
The above listed factors will only act as constrains but will not affect the outcome of the study.
1.16 DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following terminologies are operationally defined below.
Administration:The organization and use of men and materials to accomplish a purpose.
Effectiveness: An individual who provides labour to a company or another person.
Employee: An individual who provides labour to a company or another person.
Job: This is a task or an economic role for which a person is paid.
Motivation: An expenditure of effort towards a goal.
Performance: The degree of accomplishment of task which make up an individual job.
Productivity: The ratio of output or input be it labour or other resources.
Profitability: The capacity to make profit.
Promotion: The transfer of an employee to a job which pays more money or one that comes some preferred status.
Recognition: To acknowledge the existence or loyalty of something; treat as valid or worthy of consideration.
Salary: A fixed amount of money paid to workers usually measured on monthly or annually basis.
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