1.1 Background of the Study
Employee motivation is one of the rules of managers of growth efficient task control between personnel in businesses. A motivated employee is responsive of the precise goals and goals he or she ought to achieve consequently he or she directs its attempt in that course. Motivation formulates an enterprise greater successful because provoked employees are constantly seeking out progressed practices doing more. Getting employees to do their satisfactory performance even in energetic circumstances is one of the personnel most stable and greasy demanding situations and this can be made possible over motivating them. Motivation principle is concerned with what determines purpose directed behaviour. Those wishes, how the fulfilment of goals and or comments on their success reinforces a successful behaviour and the way perception in a single’s capacity to perform a specific task will actuate behaviour that is anticipated to achieve the successful overall performance of that challenge (Armstrong, 2016). Factors affecting employee’s motivation, nobody work for free, nor need to them. Employees need to earn affordable revenue and fee, and personnel choice their people to sense that is what they're getting (Houran, 2014). Money is the fundamental incentive; no other incentive or motivational technique comes even close to it to appreciate to its influential cost (Sara et al., 2014). It has the supremacy to magnetize, preserve and motivate people in the direction of better performance. Frederick Taylor and his scientific associate defined money because the most essential issue in motivating the economic workers to acquire extra productivity (Adeyinka et al., 2017).
Robbins and Decenzo, (2015) opined motivation as the willingness to influence a high level of effort to attain organizational goals, objectives and aims stigmatized by the efforts and abilities to satisfy. They opined that motivation is a task of three key elements which are organizational goals, needs and efforts. Motivation is one of the most vital concepts of psychology and important for the managers who direct subordinates for obtaining worthwhile goals and objectives (Ali et al., 2013). In the past, especially for the behavioural disciplines in organizational and individual development, employers concentrated on fully analysing the organization’s technological and mechanical capacities, and often ignore a vast untapped resource: its human assets. Since increasing the motivation and commitment of employee members can improve the organization’s performance (Brown, 2011), therefore this issue is found to be vital or concentration. How well a firm motivates and encourages its workers i.e(Intrinsic or Extrinsic) in order to achieve their mission and vision is of paramount concern, goals and objectives
Motivation alludes to the strength inside or past a man that stimulates and maintains their sense of duty regarding a strategy (Boddy, 2018). Motivationencourages worker fulfilment (Attrams, 2013).According to Robbins and Decenzo (2018) the readiness to apply abnormal amounts of push to get authoritative objectives and goals, adapted by the endeavours and strength to fulfil is the thing that motivation requires. There two types of motivation. These are Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (Armstrong, 2013).
Intrinsic motivation is described with tangible rewards like salary and incidental advantages, security, promotions, contract of administration, the workplace environment and states of administration. Extrinsic motivators can have a fast and capable impact yet won't really last more (Mullins, 2015; Armstrong, 2013). Intrinsic Motivation is identified with mental rewards like the chance to utilize one's capacity and strength. What's more, such relationship can be importantly seen on the difficulties experienced and accomplishments, gratefulness, good acknowledgment and treatment in a chivalrous manner. Mental rewards are those that can more often than not be dictated by the activities and conduct of the individual chiefs (Mullins, 2015). Intrinsic motivators are worried about the nature of work life, and are probably going to have increased and long haul influence since they are inherent in people and are not forced from outside, (Armstrong, 2016).
Combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors for motivation gives a look that in order for workers at workplace to be good in anything, the only talent required is motivation and rewards. So, it is a talent which is needed to do any task. Employees spend most of their time at the workplace thus it is essential that they get motivated and bound by good mind set for the task they do, other than that it would leave them angry and unhappy which generally affects their performance at work place(Ghazanfar et al, 2011). Most organisations or firms still fail to create positive mind set of their employees or workers through motivation by encouraging them with rewards like promotions, awards and recognition. Lack of these motivation packages affect employees performance and the general performance of the organisation as a whole (Attrams, 2013). The performance of any organization and organizational continuity depends on employees that it is through them that things get done (Al Jasmi, 2012).Very few organizations believe that Employees have personal needs which must obtained and habits which must be properly managed if they are to contribute to general organizational growth and development (Joseph, 2015). Problems of salary, training programs, promotional structures and rewards and recognition systems can in one way affect or improve motivation among health workers in hospitals and other organizations. Studies have suggested that a reward is now reason for satisfaction of the employee which directly affects the performance of the employee (Kalimullah et al., 2010). The rewards are management tools that optimistically make a contribution to company’s effectiveness by using influencing character or organization conduct. All organizations use pay, promotion, bonuses or different types of rewards motivates and inspire high level performances of employees (Reena et al., 2017). To use salaries as a motivator effectively, managers need to recall revenue systems which ought to include significance. Organization attach to every job, payment in keeping with overall performance, non-public or special allowances, fringe advantages, pensions and so on (Adeyinka et al., 2017). And if you want them to believe you and do things for you and the institute, they want to be inspired (Baldoni, 2015).Theories imply that leader and fans raise one another to better stages of morality and motivation (Rukhmani, 2010). Motivation is solely and really a management behaviour. It stems from wanting to do what is right for people in addition to for the organization. Management and motivation are dynamic techniques (Baldoni, 2015). Including up; they work with a feeling of duty and prefer advantages of the organization to have benefit for themselves (Yazdani, et al., 2011). Trust is defined as the belief of one approximately others, selection to behave based on speech, conduct and their choice (Hassan et al., 2010). If a business enterprise wants to improve and be successful, agree with performs a massive function so it should continually be preserved to make certain an organization’s existence and to enhance workers motivation (Annamalai, 2010). It is able to make intrapersonal and interpersonal results and influence at the relations, interior and out the employer (Hassan et al., 2010). Regardless of how technologically advanced an enterprise can be, excessive productivity depends on the level of motivation and the effectiveness of the group of workers. So a personnel training is an indispensable method for motivating people. One way managers can instigate motivation is to present suitable information on the judgments of their actions on others (Adeyinka et al., 2017). Research has shown that there are a variety of significant factors which determines the degree of employee motivation. Performance is greatly reliant on employee skills and development. Therefore, if an employee does not have the adequate skills and abilities to accomplish a particular work their performance will be low and poor. In a situation in which the employee is motivated and has good training, job performance will definitely be at a high level. Performance can be calculated through high productivity, higher generation of income, maximized profits and customer satisfaction (Menz, 2012). Managers in both private and public organizations are becoming increasingly aware that motivation increases employee productivity.
Consequently, managers are crucial to the performance and success of the organization. Managers are highly involved in the process of modelling or re-shaping the organizational structure in a manner that inspires and increases the level of employee motivation. It is widely known that employees are motivated and stay within an organization for as long as they feel that the organization is able to provide an opportunity for self-actualization and personal development. The fulfilment of such conditions contributes to an improvement of the employee’s willingness to strive toward successfully achieving the organizations goals and objectives (Pereira, 2012). Research shows that job satisfaction is positively related to job performance, in addition low motivation and low job satisfaction has negatively affected organizational performance. Therefore, an employee motivation is likely to have effects on the outcome of care and performance of organizations.From the foregoing, and looking at today’s economic environment, it is evident that the pace of change in our work place environment presents fresh challenges daily. Therefore the study will want to look at the effect of motivation on organizational performance of water producing organizations in Rivers state.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The performance of organization and employee motivation has been the focus of intensive research effort in recent times. How well an organization motivates its workers in order to achieve their mission and vision is of paramount concern. Employees in both public and private sector organization are becoming increasingly aware that motivations increases productivity. From the foregoing, and looking at today’s economic trend, it is evident that the pace of change in our business environment presents fresh challenges daily.
Employees’ motivation in all organizations is important for the growth of the organization (Meyer and Peng, 2016). Motivated employees are the main assets that can lead organizations to the success or if not managed well, to decline (Manzoor, 2011). Despite of their importance, most organizations do not bother on motivation among employees rather considering employees as mere input to the production of the business (Al Jasmi, 2012). Lack of motivation among employees working in hospitals enhances poor performance of particular hospitals (Keijzers, 2010). Motivational problem facing employees include low salaries, lack of trainings, irregular promotional structure and lack of recognition of workers achievements (Forson, 2012).
To this effect, this study attempts to analyze how motivational tools can be used by water producing organizations to effectively derive plans for growth and development. Also, this study is intended to assess factors for employees’ motivation on organizational performance in water producing organizations in Rivers state, identify the challenges facing employees’ motivation and assess the possible solutions for challenges facing employees’ motivation in water producing organizations in Rivers state.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The general objective of the study is to investigate employee motivation and organizational performance in water producing organizations in Rivers State, Nigeria. The specific objectives are:
1. To determine the factors that increase motivation of employees in an organization
2. To analyze various reward systems and how it can be used by an organization to enhance performance
3. To examine the effect of employee’s motivation on organizational performance
4. To examine the relationship between employee motivation and organizational performance or firm growth
5. To provide recommendation for firmsand their managers tomove forward employees motivation and reward system thoseextend organizationalperformance.
1.4 Research Questions
1. What are the factors that increase motivation of employees in an organization?
2. What are reward systems and how it can be used by an organization to enhance performance?
3. How does employee motivation affect organizational performance?
4. What is the relationship between employee motivation and organizational performance or firm growth?
5. What are therecommendations for firmsand their managers tomove forward employee’s motivation and reward system thoseextend organizationalperformance?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
Ho: Employee motivation does not have effect on organizational performance
H1:Employee motivation has a significant effect on organizational performance
Ho: There is no relationship between employee motivation and organizational performance
H1: There is a significant relationship between employee motivation and organizational performance
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study findings offered valuable insights to water producing organizations, private organizations and government organizations. It gave recommendations about current status of staff motivation which could form the basis of instituting measure for necessary improvement in terms of performance.
The research would help managers to be aware of the effect of their actions and inactions towards employee motivation. Thus, the outcome of the study serves as a guide for corporate organizations to adopt appropriate motivational strategies to enhance their performance. In addition, the results of the study would contribute to the existing body of knowledge in the area of motivation and would also provide a basis upon which further researches would be carried out. Also, the results would help water producing organizations in Rivers state to adopt the right mix of motivational strategies to enhance their performance especially as the influx of water producing organizations in Rivers state exposes the organization to stiff competition.
1.7 Scope of the Study
Thus, this study evaluates employee motivation and organizational performance in water producing organizations in Rivers state. The nature of the study precludes the staff of water producing organizations that are not expected to be involved in management decision making process of the study group.
1.8 Limitation of Study
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms
Motivation:Refers to what stimulates and guides human behaviours and how these behaviours are sustained to attain a specific goal.
Employees: Employees are people who are hired working under contract in an organization; they are referred to as the workforce of an organization.
Organisational Performance: Organizational performance comprises the actual output or results of an organization as measured against its intended outputs. According to Richard et al. organizational performance encompasses three specific areas of firm outcomes: financial performance; product market performance; and shareholder return.
1.10 Organisation of Study
This study is structured to provide a critical review of relevant information regarding Employee motivation and organisational performance in water producing organizations. The study is comprised of five chapters and it is presented as follows;
Chapter One; deals with the introduction, giving the Background to the study, Statement of the problem, purpose, objectives, research questions, significance, Organisation of the research and the Limitation to the Study.
Chapter Two; reviewed the literature regarding many aspects of employee motivation and its impact on organisational performance.
Chapter Three; presented the research methodology and focused on the research design and method as well as sampling techniques, data collection methods and data analysis methods.
Chapter Four focused on data presentation, which was subsequently interpreted and analysed in relation to the research objectives and questions and discussion of findings of the study.
In Chapter Five a summary of the findings, recommendations and conclusions was sketched.
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