BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a philosophy that contributes to the brand and goodwill of the institution and the stakeholders concerned (Jamali, 2012). If the institution is a business institution or a non-profit institution, the name and goodwill are of immense importance to the core life and longevity of the institution, and where corporate social responsibility really comes into play and plays a significant role. For this reason, many businesses and organisations around the world are investing heavily in CSR departments to ensure their longevity and promote their brand and activities. The idea of CSR is not new and novel and goes back to the time of famous Greek thinkers such as Plato, Aristotle, Kant, Marx, and many others. The only new thing that many organizations still do not know how to run their CSR departments and add a 'social dimension' to their sector. Corporate Social Responsibility is a set of principles of conduct to which an organization subscribes in order to have a positive and beneficial effect on society as a basis for the role of business in society (Jones, 2010; Epstein, 2015). The philanthropic component of CSR is also a popular orientation that is prioritized by managers in conducting CSR, voluntarism, community growth, discretionary roles are all aspects of the philanthropic dimension. In addition to this dimension, there are physical, legal and ethical aspects of corporate social responsibility (Moir, 2011; Carroll, 1991). The wave of globalization has influenced companies to be more committed to the social, economic and environmental interests of their host communities by growing compliance and reporting on their corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives. The topic of CSR is so sensitive that contemporary multinational companies have shown that it is worthwhile as a tactic to have an impact on society without losing their primary objective (Haskins, 2009; Porter and Kramer, 2011). In view of this positive growth, CSR facilitated discussions from an academic and practitioner viewpoint, but little feedback from faith-based groups with a high preference for ethics and values. Whereas statistics have shown that "ethics, values, integrity and responsibility are needed in a modern workplace" (Joyner and Payne, 2012). As a result, contemporary companies and individuals working in them are becoming ethically and spiritually more mindful of their corporate behavior and inactions. In this atmosphere, coordinated faith-based organizations have a major role to play in building and disseminating moral and ethical prescriptions that are compatible with religious doctrines and providing practical guidance to all parties engaged in business on ethical behavior. For example, the Interfaith Declaration on Business Ethics was created to codify the "Shared Moral, Ethical and Spiritual Values" of Christianity, Islam and Judaism with the goal of developing certain principles that could serve as guidelines for international business behavior" (Interfaith Declaration, 1993). More direct action was taken by the Interfaith Declaration on Corporate Social Responsibility. The importance of CSR is to form the work of an organization that involves faith-based organisations (Lopez, 2001; Kreber&Mhina, 2007; Woodrow, 2006; Ferrari &Velcoff, 2006). Faith-based colleges and universities are led by missions and visions that are influenced and inspired by their convictions of faith (Firmin& Gilson, 2010). Wilson (2016) also argued that the mission and vision of a religious institution is to enact the functional reflection of that specific religion. Thus the majority of religious colleges and universities are the realistic application of the religious and cultural expectations and desires of the sponsoring religion or faith-community. These faith-based organizations are initiating and transmitting the distinctive theological and cultural philosophies of their sponsor in the fulfillment of their mission. Yet even among these diverse faith-based organizations there is overlap in mission. These colleges and universities are all related to the Semitic or Abrahamic faiths, with a focus on scripture (Levenson, 2012). It is in the passages of their various holy scriptures that these religions find templates, examples, and even commandments to serve others and to help a local and global "neighbor."
Nigerian faith-based organisations and universities are therefore in a unique position to be especially successful in their work of serving local communities and sustaining global good precisely because of their faith-based and inspired missions. The missions of faith-based organisations are exceedingly powerful, integrating the optimism inherent in education with the gravitas of human eternity, the synergy of which is much more successful than any other element individually (Daniels, 2015). However a qualification preface is required. Prior to exploring how faith-based colleges and universities are best placed to work efficiently for a common public good, awareness of current realities is also required. Among the recent faith-based organisations in Nigeria, there are major gaps in knowledge and perception of the concept of public good and dedication to and meaningful work for the public good. At the end of the day this diversity is simply a result of the wide diversity of faith-based colleges and universities in Nigeria and in addition, of the multitude of denominations, religious practices and religions that underpin these faith-based organisations.
Faith-based organizations are typically an open framework in which their internal and external variables communicate dynamically with each other. Interactions are influencing organizational behaviors, outcomes and primary approaches to corporate social responsibility (CSR). Faith-based organizations need to do more to regain the confidence of various stakeholder groups. Not surprisingly, the strategic problems of CSR have attracted significant academic and managerial attention in a number of contexts, such as organizational success (McWilliams and Siegel, 2000; Zairi and Peters, 2012), law (Valle'e, 2005) and business ethics (Robertson and Crittenden, 2004). Given these positive social developments, the general consensus about what constitutes a CSR organization in the diverse business world is far from definitive. There are still complicated moral problems dividing people with different religious affiliations in the geopolitical world of the twenty-first (21st century. And the behavior of strategizing for ideals that underlie the concepts of CSR are distinct from having knowledge of them. This suggests, for a novel perspective, that the current CSR literature on religious systems is focused on the discovery of certain secret views, which may be seminal, in the explanation of corporate sustainability, given the scarce literature written on the subject.
The CSR is a way of life and a key corporate know-how inside an organization. Managers' views of the CSR are defined by their learning, knowledge and schooling. The nature of culture and its evolution and changes within an organization have an influence on the CSR. A closely shared value-, intent-, result-and stakeholder-driven CSR can therefore be enormous driving forces that affect every aspect of the company's operations. Christians and Muslims should, through their own example, nurture their timeless social duty and morality in the society they represent. They demonstrate the values of social responsibility in such a way that they do not oppose but pursue the highest benefit of the others IE in their host communities. The issue with accurate CSR is that it sometimes leads to an unacceptable attitude; it simply becomes a public relationship exercise or a window dressing technique that masks unethical corporate practices in host communities. Strategic management and decision-making processes therefore incorporate mission statements that illustrate the importance of an organization, like the CSR. This is because the mission statements direct the company's actions in the pursuit of profits. CSR directs and promotes favored faith-based organizational methods. It encourages the ethical elements of corporate and company strategies and unlearns a deeply ingrained destructive culture. As part of its organizational core skills, the institution's highest level of decision-making and external relations must regularly reflect its continuing commitment to the CSR. It's a sound corporate futurology. The best way to monitor and foresee future CSR obligations is to live up to the existing CSR obligations properly. The rising importance of CSR functions in the growth of society is being recognized throughout the world. However the majority of the time in Nigeria this corporate role remains focused on philanthropy, which is primarily motivated and influenced by its social, religious and cultural aspects of the nation. Moreover the government has not pressured or pushed businesses to enact CSR policies that are beneficial to society, which is why it remains primarily focused on philanthropy. In the context of the above discussion, the purpose of this study is to examine the role of CSR in faith-based organisations in the state of Oyo..
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Faith-based organizations in the state of Oyo state make an immense contribution to the socio-economic growth of the state. Baridam (1995) argued that being socially responsible to organizations would lead to mutual satisfaction of both the organization and its immediate environment through interaction. While Osaze (1991), Justin, Wadike (2013) noted that the setting of organizational goals and corporate strategies should include the immediate context in which it operates, in order to strategically address the possible complexities of political social, economic and environmental problems, yet to identify the limits to which the policies and behavior of organizations should cover it. However the application of Corporate Social Responsibility can be very difficult, as it appears to impose excessive pressure on companies to meet community needs (Baughn et al., 2017). There are thriving Corporate Social Responsibility ventures in developing and promising perspectives (Baskin, 2016), but there are still questions about the potential of Corporate Social Responsibility to contribute to development and to resolve some of the imperative setbacks facing the poorest sections of the world, considering that the majority of Corporate Social Responsibility programs are driven by (Banerjee, 2017, 2018; Morse, 2018). Corporate Social Responsibility is an organizational phenomenon, as it has recently been incorporated into the corporate strategy of most companies. People hold too many opinions or assumptions regarding the idea of Corporate Social Responsibility; some argue that corporations should not be mandated by law to pursue social responsibility, but all the same organizations are expected to do so on a voluntary basis (Jones, 2010). While Corporate Social Responsibility is viewed as offering benefits to both society and organizations, its implementation is not without challenges. The advantages and challenges of Corporate Social Responsibility in faith-based organizations in Oyo state are therefore the phenomena that the researcher intends to examine.
AIMS OF THE STUDY
The main goal of this study is to evaluate the role of corporate social responsibility in a faith-based organization in Oyo state. Other general objectives of the analysis are as follows:
1. To explore people's perceptions of corporate social responsibility in faith-based organizations in Oyo State
2. To evaluate the benefits of Corporate Social Responsibility in Faith-based organizations in Oyo State
3. Examining the degree to which corporate social responsibility in a faith-based organization can contribute to community growth in Oyo State
4. To evaluate the challenges of Corporate Social Responsibility in Faith-based organizations in Oyo State
5. To investigate the role of corporate social responsibility in a faith-based institution in Oyo State
6. To make recommendations that will sustain effective delivery of services and community growth.
H0: Corporate social responsibility does not play any role in faith based organisations in Oyo state
H1: Corporate social responsibility plays a significant role in faith based organisations in Oyo state
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will be of the utmost importance to faith-based higher learning organizations in Nigeria as the findings and recommendations serve as a model for consolidating their efforts to carry out corporate social responsibility. In addition, other corporate organisations will find this paper useful as the analytical methodology of this study will, to a very large degree, guide them in the implementation of community development initiatives. This paper is applicable to all stakeholders directly or indirectly associated with corporate social responsibility, such as employers, workers, students, union representatives, community leaders, youth groups, government and the general public, as topics related to corporate social responsibility are discussed as a reference in their operations. Finally, future researchers can find this paper as important literature material..
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is based on assessing the role of corporate social responsibility in faith based institution in Oyo state, a study of faith based selected universities.
LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Corporate Social Responsibility: a form of corporate self-regulation incorporated into a business model. Relation is made to corporate practices involving programs that support society
Human Social Responsibility: a change in emphasis from corporate social responsibility to more individuals and community-based initiative. That is, switching from a corporate emphasis to a human focus.
Stakeholders: A stakeholder is any group of individuals or companies who may have a positive or negative effect on the operations of a company, management or organization. As a consequence, the stakeholder is someone or something that could influence or be influenced by the activity of a company as it attempts to achieve its objectives.
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