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Project Topic:

MOTIVATION AND ITS EFFECTS ON EMPLOYEES IN AN ORGANIZATION(A Case Study of Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation PH)

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 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1 - 5 ::   Pages: 73 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis, Abstract  ::   122 people found this useful

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BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION UNDERGRADUATE PROJECT TOPICS, RESEARCH WORKS AND MATERIALS

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The human element is the most dynamic of any organizational setup  that is why it have been noted that all problems faced by management, motivating the employees have been ranked as one of the most intractable. It is therefore common for one to ask the questions as to who is responsible for motivation. Is it the responsibility of management or the employees will be expected to provide his own means of motivation.

The answers to these up surging questions are not farfetched. Some authors see motivation within the confines of the employees in the organization. Barnard and Garry (1964) while other like Taylor view motivation as something arising from sources outside the employee in the organization.

Motivation has been defined by authors in different ways motivation is that which causes, channels and sustain people’s behavior of attitude towards something. Motivation is one of the major problems of management whose aim is to make the employees to be able to put in their best. The means of production in the traditional work place in the Nigeria work environment of society such as the village farms fishing ports, crafts and traditional business have not changed, as a result the mode of work organizational and at workplace are still based on indigenous African work practice.

This indigenous system of the National worker attitude to work is still there, despite all forms of motivation, they are still not satisfied. In case study reported by Ahiazu (1985), it shows that when Nigeria is observed in his traditional practices are adopted, he is seen to be very much committed and to be very industrious or hardworking as to when it come to the industrial work environment where he appears to be non-Challant or he feel highly uncommitted and is not as hard working as he normally will be at his traditional workplace.

Motivation is a concept that has been denied a common definition but suffices to say that the definition given by Koontz (1976) which says that motivation refers to the inner state that energizes and channel human behavior. Vroom (1954), Maslow (1954) and Herbenz (1986) in their research studies attempted to find an explanation to what really motivate people at workplace.

Maslow (1954) carried out a study of the hierarchy of needs. The prime emotive of man is how to satisfy his or how to support his immediate and extended families and to be able to carter for his responsibilities.

The prime motive of man is social needs. Social needs are such need of belonging to a particular class in the society and the job of the individual has come bearing on the kind of link with the need for self-actualization. The success or growth and also the fall of any organization depend on the manpower development strategies. In order for manpower to be effective, there must be effective motivation.

It is believed that when a workers achievement is acknowledged in any form, the individual will tend to do more or repeat what he has been praised according to Ahiazu (1984). On the hand, he believed that the non-challant attitude to work amongst workers in the public sector is the result of inadequate motivation.

Two different assumptions were presented by Douglas in the 1950s about the employees and called them theories X and Y. He stated in theory X that human beings are traditionally lazy, indolent to work, greedy and would always want to be forced or threatened to do something before he does it. But theory Y has a contrary view about theory X. theory Y is saying that human beings is willing and also ready to work, so far as he is directed in what to do, he is willing to corrective measures when necessary.

The organization is directed on what to do, he is well-organized placed with various activities ranging from administration if the day-to-day production of goods and services. The environment and the employees are very vital in the administration of any organization that describes organization as a social system whether they are industries, servicing set-ups they involve people therefore to work or manage them. This means that the person in question must understand how these organization works to operate in social and work context.

Employee’s motivation is a term used to describe an inciting and or encouraging payment or incentives for services. The incentive which incites on the action is a form of motivation. In order words, motivation will be used to describe any special inducement offered by a business establishment or organization to its employees in either monetary or praise form or either economic benefits or compensation employees to secure higher productivity and maximum efficiency. The era of scientific management dating from the 1890s has witnessed the development of many kinds of incentives pay plans world over, some of which are not mentioned in the examples, but importantly is that, employee’s motivation moves beyond the work pay plan.

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Motivation is anything that makes a person or individual to act or behave in a way he has not been behaving before. The problem now is; are employees in the public sector motivated? By being motivated, one is asking whether they are provided with the necessary incentives that will motivated, asking whether they are being provided with the necessary incentives that will motivate them into working harder to increase productivity or the output level of the organization.

Are they also provided with the necessary materials that enable them works hard? In some organizations, the materials for effective work procedure are not available. There is also the problem of work environment leadership style and disparity in the organizations.

1.3   PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The aim of the study is to identify the level of motivation of employees in the organization. A firm develops practices and policies to guide its motivational programmes. They do these with little or regard for the welfare of the employees.

This research with also serve as a means of tracing out the problems of the Deteriorating conditions of some establishment and to reactivate business organization. It with also serve as a means of some of documentation of such important facts from references.

1.4   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Management objectives of human resources, the work environment are constantly subjected to review with the purpose of strengthening motivation factors. The work force of any organization is the pivot of its resources. Therefore, management always try motivate workers/employees. The importance is in attempting to obtain solutions to peculiar motivating questions in the general work situation in Nigeria. The second relevance of the study is in the area of finding lasting solution to the motivational questions that are peculiar to the public sector. The third area is to find solutions to the sometimes bothering questions of whecther or not a remarkable different exist motivation and workforce of the employee (organization).

1.5   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following research questions are formulated to guide the researcher;

1) Do you have training programme in your organization?

2) What are the motivational instruments used by our organization to its workers?

3) Does your organization have welfare scheme for employees?

4) How does motivation affect the overall performance of employees in the organization?

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of this research was confined to NNPC as it develops practices and policies to guide motivation of the employees. It deals directly with the department of human resources.

1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

This research work had some problems one of which was the lack of finds. This prevented the researcher from covering other organizations to have a wider view of the problem under study.

Also, the attitude of some of the respondents posed a lot of set back to the study; this was either incomplete of the questionnaire or inaptitude towards the researcher by the respondent.

Another was the limited time within the project work is expected to be completed coupled with other academic work at hand. This caused the researcher a great problem as he finds it difficult to cope with both at same time.

1.8 DEFINITION OF THE TERMS

The following terms are defined in consonant with the meaning it portrays in this work;

Non-Challant:         Showing lack of interest

Inducement: Something that encourages one to do something e.g. Money

Era:         A period of time

Incentives:      Encouragement

Concept: A general idea, thought or understanding

Confines: A limit

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