1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The use of Computer (Information Communication Technologies) in schools has been one of the greatest innovations in teaching and learning. While there is widespread recognition that people need to learn how to use computers effectively in order to function in modern society, there is debate about the nature of that learning. Some see it as a simple but lengthy list of technical skills while others see it as including recognition of the power of computer to bring about a major change in learning. Aviram and Talmi (2015) identified several groups that are active in computer in education. They include technocrats that see the use of computer as non-problematic and simply a matter of using the new tools and reformists, computer has brought a major and possibly inexorable agent of change in education. The reformist groups see the rapid growth in the use of computer in schooling occurring in conjunction with the adoption of the constructivist learning theory (OECD, 2015). This theory supports active, hands-on learning. It is related to Cognitive Apprenticeship and the work of Jerome Bruner. Some educators see computer as being a major driver of school reform. This reform is towards a more constructivist approach, using related terms such as: student-centred learning, problem-based learning and experimental education. Others point to the slow pace of such reform and suggest that computer may support reform but it is by no means inevitable that it will do so (E-learning Europe, 2005). The present study is based upon the background supported by previous researchers who see computer as a powerful tool from constructivist learning view point due to its capacity to provide: 1. Active and highly motivating engagement with students 2. Powerful tools to create text, art, music, sound, models, presentations, and movies etc. that produce high quality products and remove much of the tedium normally associated with such creation. 3. An error-forgiving environment in which editing of a product fosters learning by trial and error. 4. Easy communication in text, voice, video 5. Quick access to information and resources. Educators are finding out that while computer can provide a technical environment for constructivist learning to occur, there are needs to develop quality teaching and to sustain environment that will change and inspire students to learn (Aviram and Talmi, 2015). One of the problems of teaching and learning is the method of imparting knowledge to learners. The major difficulty in teaching of business studies has been the method by which the subject is customarily taught without regards to instructional materials. The pedagogical approach in imparting knowledge to learners has become inadequate to their needs. Bajah (2008) and Okeke (2015) found that science subjects has not been taught in Nigeria schools the way pupils can maximally benefits, as science instruments have mostly been teacher-centred. For the past two decades, science education has been facing a lot of difficulties which include poor performance of students in science subjects (Adeyegbe, 2014). Business Studies like other subjects, recorded poor students’ performance both in national and international examination (Akale, 2015). Many factors contributed to the poor performance of students in examination (Akale, 2015; Okebukola and Jegede, 2011). These factors include: 1. Inability of the teachers to put across the concepts to the students 2. Lack of skills and competence required for teaching 3. Shortage of qualified introductory technology teachers 4. Lack of teaching materials and necessary equipment. Business Studies as a subject is very important for the economic and technological advancement of any nation. Though its usefulness cuts across all fields of human endeavour, the low enrolment of students in the subject at both junior and senior secondary school levels has been a source of concern to various people especially business educators at various times (Omosewo, 2011; Balogun, 1985; Ogunneye, 1982; Orisaseyi, 1977; Ogunyemi and Eboda, 1974). Many students see business subjects as too abstract to comprehend, thereby resorting to memorization or rote learning. Many students have also changed from business subjects to art and other subjects while dropped out and some failed woefully at the final examination. Meanwhile, various attempts have been made by government, school proprietors and teachers to facilitate effective teaching and learning of these courses, which are the rudiments of development of any nation. Textbooks have been constantly reviewed and rewritten in simpler forms and teaching materials of various types designed, yet the problems persist. Ogunneye (1982) found out that in this era of technological advancement, technology is still having minimum impact on education. This is because 80% of teachers in Nigeria are mostly using the chalkboard and textbook method (traditional method) in teaching. Actually, most schools do not have modern instructional equipment and media. The few schools that have are unable to use them effectively due to erratic power supply and at times the inability of some teachers to operate some of this instructional media equipment. However, constant use of the traditional method of teaching is a major factor contributing to poor academic achievement of business education students.
1.2. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
One of the major problems faced by business studies students is inability to remember what has been learnt. This problem is often caused by too much theoretical expression by the teachers while learners are passive listeners. Students memorize and regurgitate facts and concepts. These problems confronting the teaching and learning of business studies can be handled using slide presentations, video presentation process and other interactive computer software facilities in which a student interacts with and is guided by visual equipment aimed at achieving certain instructional goals (Ezeliora, 2011; Onasanya, 2011). Computer can be used to transform classroom instruction into a series of rich memorable experiences and thus, reduce boredom and forgetfulness in teaching subjects such as business studies. In the recent years, the development of microcomputer in the process of teaching and learning has become widespread in educational institutions (Ezeliora, 2011; Onasanya, 2011). Abimbade (1996) reported that the use of computer (1) increases the time of learners devote to learning, (2) enhance the speed of available of data and information, (3) provide immediate feed-back, (4) assist less qualified teachers and (5) increase teachers efficiently and effectiveness. Computers are useful in teaching and learning because they make the work of teachers easier; for example computers are used in demystifying complex concepts in different subjects. Computers help students learn better by enhancing their learning environment and increasing learning resources. Availability of computers to Business Studies teachers is the first stage in the successful adoption of computers in teaching the subject in secondary schools. This is because teachers can only be competent and interested users of computers as teaching tools if they are available and easily accessible. Teachers will not adopt computer technologies into their instructional tasks if computers are not available in the first place. There are many challenges that hinder the process of using computers in the classroom. However, when effectively used, computers have a dramatic effect on teachers and learners as concluded by Reid & Rushton (1985). But, where computers are not used effectively, they do not add value to teaching and learning. The role played by computers in the teaching of Business Studies in Nigerian secondary schools is not obvious. This study was done to establish the significance of computers on teaching of Business Studies in junior secondary schools. Positive teacher attitude encourages the use of computers while a negative one hinders their use in the teaching and learning environment. The researcher therefore sought to reveal whether it is worthwhile using computers in teaching and learning of Business Studies.
1.3. AIMS OF THE STUDY
The major purpose of this study is to examine the significance of computer on teaching of business studies in junior secondary school. Other general objectives of the study are:
1. To examine the level of availability of computer infrastructure in secondary schools in Bauchi Metropolis.
2. To examine the extent Business Studies students acquired computer skills in junior secondary schools.
3. To examine the impact of computer on teaching of business studies in junior secondary schools.
4. To examine the extent computer influences the academic performance of students in Business Studies.
5. To examine the relationship between computer and teaching of business studies in junior secondary schools.
6. To examine the challenges faced by the teachers in using computer to teach Business studies.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is the level of availability of computer infrastructure in secondary schools in Bauchi Metropolis?
2. To what extent does Business Studies students acquired computer skills in junior secondary schools?
3. What are the impacts of computer on teaching of business studies in junior secondary schools?
4. To what extent does computer influences the academic performance of students in Business Studies?
5. What is the relationship between computer and teaching of business studies in junior secondary schools?
6. What are the challenges faced by the teachers in using computer to teach Business studies?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H0:There is no significant impact of computer on teaching of business studies in junior secondary schools.
H1:There is a significant impact of computer on teaching of business studies in junior secondary schools.
H0: There is no significant relationship between computer and teaching of business studies in junior secondary schools.
H1: There is a significant relationship between computer and teaching of business studies in junior secondary schools.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings would be significant to student teachers, parents, school administrators, ministry of education as well as the at large. The result of this research would help the students in advancement of their knowledge as well as increase their awareness and understanding of the subject. The result would also help teachers to understand the effects of certain processes and at the same time increase their understanding at the appropriate skills, method and specific teaching behaviour. Similarly, the result of this research would help in increasing and understanding the awareness of parents as to the importance of business studies in the overall development of the economy of the nation in general, as well as know the remedies to their children's failure in business studies examination. The outcome of this research would also make the school administrators, ministry of education and the government to bring about better and improved practice in business studies remedy the problems of teaching and learning business studies in secondary schools. However, this study would serve as insight to general public particularly for further study by researchers in this field.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is based on the significance of computer on teaching of business studies in Junior Secondary Schools in Bauchi Metropolis.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Business Studies: A subject offered under the 8-4-4 Nigerian education system and covers commerce, accounting, economics, entrepreneurship and office management.
Computer: An electronic device that accepts user input referred to as data, processes it under specials instructions called programs in order to produce a desired output called information.
Cooperative learning strategies: A plan of action in gaining of knowledge and skills that is characterised by willingness of the learner and teacher to comply in the learning processes.
Information and Communication Technologies: diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communicate and to create, disseminate, store, and manage information. Examples are computers, the Internet, broadcasting technologies (radio and television), and telephony.
OTHER SIMILAR BUSINESS EDUCATION PROJECTS AND MATERIALS