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Project Topic:

THE IMPACT OF MASS MEDIA ON BREAST CANCER CAMPAIGN IN NIGERIA

Project Information:

 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1 - 5 ::   Pages: 60 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis  ::   4,319 people found this useful

Project Department:

MASS COMMUNICATION UNDERGRADUATE PROJECT TOPICS, RESEARCH WORKS AND MATERIALS

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

1.3     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY     

1.4     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.5     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 

1.6     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

1.7     LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

1.8     DEFINITION OF TERMS     

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

          3.1     INTRODUCTINTRODUCTION

          3.2     RESESEARCH DESIGN

          3.3     STUDY POPULATION

          3.4     SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

3.5     DATA FOR THE STUDY: INSTRUMENTATION

          3.6     METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     DATA PRESENTPRESENTATATION AND ANALYSIS

          4.1     INTRODUCTION

          4.2     DATA ANALYSIS

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

          5.1     SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

          5.2     CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

          5.3     LIMITATION

          5.4     SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER STUDIES

REFRENCE

APPENDIX

CHAPTER ONE

1.0                                             INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women globally, with over one million new cases diagnosed annually, resulting in over 400,000 deaths. About 4.4 million women are living with the disease in the world (Oluwatosin and Oladepo, 2011, p.9; Akpo, Akpo, Akhator, 2009, p.2). Breast cancer will continue to pose serious challenge to Nigeria and other developing countries due to seemingly lack of media campaign directed at reducing cancer incidence and mortality (Gotzshe, 2011, p.8; Adika, Joffa, Makoro, Yagba- Obariobora, Apiyanteide, 2012, pp.17-23; Irurhe, 2012, pp.1-5; Ntekim, 2009, pp.242; Agarwal, 2011, p. 235). It had been shown that African women, including Nigerians, have low knowledge of the risk factors of breast cancer. Cancer, the generic name for carcinoma is the malignant type of uncontrolled growth of cells and tissues (Lawal and Adesunkanmi, 2008, pp. 107) The risk factors for breast cancer include obesity, lower levels of physical activity, use of hormone replacement therapy, smoking, alcohol and family history, among others. Breast cancer often appeared as breast lump or bloody nipple discharge (Adebamowo, 2007, P. 4, Gerlach, Marino and Hoffman-Goetz (2006, pp. 240-244). In the developed countries, most of the breast cancer patients seek for medical attention on time, due to better knowledge of the disease while breast cancer patients in Nigeria report late to hospitals for treatment due to lack of knowledge of the disease. The late report of breast cancer cases in Nigeria had been attributed to lack of national screening programme for breast cancer, lack of knowledge of early detection measures, such as breast self-examination and clinical breast examination. Most studies suggest that breast self- examination was an efficient method of detecting cancerous turmour at an earlier stage, which will lead to higher rate of survival (Gotzshe, 2011,p.8; Akinola, Wright, Osunfidiya, Orogbemi, Akinola, 2011, p.11; Shalinini and Nayak 2011,p.7; Osime, Okojie, Aigbekaen, 2008, pp.192-197 ). Majority of breast cancer patients delay going for medical treatment due to lack of finances.

Scholars agree that media awareness campaigns should be seen as the cornerstone for health communication interventions. This is because of the myriad of communication techniques and channels that could be used to increase awareness and knowledge of health problems and interventions (Kreps & Sivaram, 2009; DeJong, 2010; Obono, 2011). Day (2011) opines that media awareness campaigns “are varied, multifaceted, highly planned and strategically assembled media symphonies designed to increase awareness, inform, or change behavior in target audiences” (p.79). Thus, media awareness campaigns are planned communication techniques that are designed to suit target groups in order to tackle diseases and health challenges that negatively affect individuals in the society. Interestingly, DeJong (2010) argues that media awareness campaigns are also known as information campaigns, which are used to raise awareness of health problems, usually with the intent of motivating people to avoid the problems. Okorie, Oyesomi and Kayode (2014) reasoned that the effective use of media awareness campaigns to promote breast cancer care recognizes the actual and potential roles of the mass media and interpersonal channels. It is also believed that mass media channels have the power to reach and inform large audiences, while interpersonal channels have been more influential in motivating attitudinal change. This study investigates the influence of media awareness campaigns on breast cancer care among women in South-West Nigeria. The subjects comprised women within the ages of 25 and 50 years, in Lagos, Oyo and Ekiti States. The choice of the group was based on the understanding that women within the age group (25 and 50 years) are the most vulnerable to the disease. Hulka and Moorman (2001) observe “breast cancer incidence is low (less than 10 new cases per 100,000 women) before age 25 and increases up to 100 fold by age 45”(p.104). Thus, it was essential that the researcher make use of women in residential houses to have access to women within the age range of 25 and 50 years.

1.2     Statement of the Problem

Cancer is one of the deadly diseases that has threatened the world. According to WHO (2005), about 12.5% of all deaths globally are caused by cancer, with the percentage more than the percentage of deaths caused by HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria put together. The increase in the attacks and deaths of women with breast cancer in Nigeria poses a pertinent question on the effect of breast cancer campaigns on women as regards the poor responses to early presentation of breast cancer. It is in view of the above and given the confirmation of American Cancer Society (2007) that breast cancer deaths remain preventable at the early stage, that the researcher critically evaluated the effectiveness of the media campaign programs on breast cancer, in causing a quick and prompt positive changes of the women in performing their BSE and CBE for the reduction in their mortality rate.

1.3     Objective of the Study

The main objective of this study is to find out the impact mass media has on cancer campaign and the awareness it has created among women in Nigeria; specifically the study intends to:

1.     Find out the level of awareness created on breast cancer among women

2.     Find out the challenges face by the mass media in the campaign against breast cancer in Nigeria

3.     Find out the impact mass media has on cancer campaign and the awareness among women

1.4     Research Question

1.     Find out the level of awareness created on breast cancer among women

2.     Find out the challenges face by the mass media in the campaign against breast cancer in Nigeria

3.     Find out the impact mass media has on cancer campaign and the awareness among women

1.5     Research Hypothesis

Ho: there is no significant impact of mass media on cancer campaign in Nigeria

Hi: there is significant impact of mass media on cancer campaign in Nigeria

1.6     Significance of the Study

This study has both theoretical and practical significance. Theoretically, it will contribute to the articulation of the media campaign role in solving the problem of breast cancer. It will also serve as a data base to mass communication researchers who may be interested in learning the global fight on breast cancer and future researchers, who may embarking on similar research in future. And finally It will serve as a document for government and non-governmental organizations, policy makers and media campaigns planners in the field of breast cancer.

1.7     Scope of the Study

This study will cover two close local government in Lagos and Ogun state, the local government chosen are Alimosho LGA in Lagos state and Ado-Odo LGA in Ogun state. This research will cover the scope of cancer and breast cancer, challenges of cancer and how to avoid it, the concept of mass media and different types of mass media will also be studied and how to create awareness through mass media.

1.8     Limitation of the Study

The challenge of finance for the general research work will be a challenge during the course of study.  However, it is believed that these constraints will be worked on by making the best use of the available materials and spending more than the necessary time in the research work. Therefore, it is strongly believed that despite these constraint, its effect on this research report will be minimal, thus, making the objective and significance of the study achievable.

1.9     Definition of Terms

Impact: a marked effect or influence

Mass Media: the media

Cancer: a disease caused by an uncontrolled division of abnormal cells in a part of the body.

Campaign: an organized course of action to achieve a goal.

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