BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Solid wastes comprise all the wastes arising from human and animal activities that are normally solid, discarded as useless or unwanted. Also included are by- products of process lines or materials that may be required by law to be disposed of (Okecha 2000). Solid wastes can be classified in a number of ways, on the basis of sources, environmental risks, utility and physical property. On the basis of source, solid wastes are again classified as: Municipal Solid Wastes, Industrial Solid Wastes and Agricultural Solid Wastes.
Improper solid waste disposal and management causes all types of pollution: air, soil, and water in the environment. Indiscriminate dumping of wastes contaminates surface and ground water supplies. In urban areas, solid waste clogs drains, creating stagnant water for insect breeding and floods during rainy seasons. Uncontrolled burning of solid waste and improper incineration contributes significantly to urban air pollution currently witnessed in most urban cities in Nigeria. Greenhouse gases are generated from the decomposition of organic wastes in landfills, and untreated leachate pollutes surrounding soil and water bodies. Health and safety issues also arise from improper solid waste management. Insect and rodent vectors are attracted to the waste and can spread diseases such as cholera and dengue fever. Using water polluted by solid waste for bathing, food irrigation and drinking water can also expose individuals to disease organisms and other contaminants. The U.S. Public environmental Service identified 22 human diseases that are linked to the lack of effective care of the environment as a result of improper solid wastes management. Solid waste workers and pickers in developing countries are seldom protected from direct contact and injury, and the co-disposal of hazardous and medical wastes with solid waste poses serious health threat. Exhaust fumes from waste collection vehicles, dust stemming from disposal practices and the open burning of waste also contribute to overall health problems. People know that poor sanitation affects their health, especially in developing and low-income countries, where the people are the most willing to pay for environmental improvements (Rathi, 2006; Sharholy et al, 2005; Ray et al., 2005; Jha et al., 2003; Kansal, 2002; UDSU, 1999; Kansal et al., 1998; Singh et al., 1998; Gupta et al., 1998; Tchobanoglous et al., 1993).
In recent years, there has been a phenomenal increase in the volume of wastes generated daily in the country. This is due to a number of reasons including the increasing population growth rate, increasing urbanisation, industrialisation and economic growth. In addition, many urban areas of Nigeria lack effective waste management systems. As a result, most urban households resort to the haphazard 8 dumping, burning and/or burying of solid wastes. (Agunwamba, Egbuniwe and Ogwueleka 2003). Agunwamba (1998) stated that the problem of waste management in Nigeria is due to the absence of public policy, enabling legislation and an environmentally stimulated and enlightened public. Appropriate policy and institutional mechanism for implementation of waste management strategies are critical for sustainable waste management. Where the policy is poor or the public is not properly sensitized or there are no proper enforcement of laws and regulations, waste management is a problem or challenge. Urban solid waste management in Nigeria is constitutionally the responsibility of the third tiers of government, that is, the local government council. Financial, material and human resources that have been committed to waste management by this tier of government have not matched this responsibility. This is evident by the poor management of many landfill sites and soil and groundwater pollution due to often mixing of household, industrial and toxic waste (UNEP, 2000). In view of the environmental situation described above in many urban areas, many Nigerian cities have been described as dirty, unsanitary, and aesthetically displeasing in the world (Mabogunje, 1996). It is evident that management of solid waste remains a key issue to be addressed in this country. In Armenia, collection, transportation, treatment and disposal of municipal solid waste have been neglected for several years because of inadequate resources. The existing institutions are inadequately equipped in terms of skills and capital resources to 9 effectively manage the waste problems (NEAP, 1998). Waste collection and transportation activities are quite poor organised. Waste generation is primarily a function of people's consumption patterns and thus is based on their socioeconomic characteristics. Low-income groups and the very poor typically generate low volumes of organic waste. In Tashkent, Uzbekistan, for example, there is little food to go around and the parts that are not consumed by the household members are used for the domestic animals or composted to amend the garden soil. Those who are somewhat better off may share leftovers as well as old clothing with those more needy (Bernstein 1999). The World Bank poverty and social impact assessment for Cashmere Sector Improvements, 2004, further stated that waste generation is also influenced to an important degree by people's attitudes toward waste: their patterns of material use and waste handling, their interest in waste reduction, the degree to which they separate wastes, and the extent to which they refrain from indiscriminate dumping and services. Attitudes may be positively influenced through awareness building campaigns and education about the negative aspects of inadequate waste collection with regard to public health and environmental conditions, and the value of effective disposal. Such campaigns also should inform people of their responsibility as waste generators and of their rights as citizens to adequate solid waste management services (Kudat, 1988). Refuse dumps have now taken over roads that link to various parts of Lagos especially in the metropolis. Frequent users of the Lagos metropolis roads and some other parts of Lagos metropolis always have to contend with the sight of human and cattle excreta, and refuse dumps that have almost taken over the roads. Despite the efforts put in by KEPA and Ahmadu Bello University in managing waste in Lagos metropolis it still faces the waste management problem. A major premise responsible for the poor management of waste in the Lagos metropolis area is the absence of a well defined management structure.
AIMS OF THE STUDY
The major aim of the study is to examine the impact of solid waste management as a booster to the environment. other specific objectives of the study include;
H0: Effective solid waste management does not have a significant impact on the environment in Lagos metropolis.
H1: Effective solid waste management has a significant impact on the environment in Lagos metropolis.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study would be of immense benefit towards the improvement of the environment so as to maintain a healthy people which would in turn improve productivity in Nigeria. The study would greatly benefit students, researchers and scholars who are interested in developing further studies on the subject matter by providing relevant literatures.
SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study of restricted to the report on the environmental impact of solid waste management in Nigeria using tyre wastes in Lagos state as case study.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Solid waste: means any garbage, refuse, sludge from a wastewater treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, or air pollution control facility and other discarded materials including solid, liquid, semi-solid, or contained gaseous material, resulting from industrial, commercial, mining and agricultural operations
Pollution: the presence in or introduction into the environment of a substance which has harmful or poisonous effects.
Environment: the surroundings or conditions in which a person, animal, or plant lives or operates.
Management: the process of dealing with or controlling things or people.
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