1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Waste disposal has been a serious challenge in Nigerian cities especially as rural-urban like Gidan Kwano in Minna, Niger state North central part of Nigeria. The growing environmental and ecological concerns have made the landfill site selection regulations more rigid. The very preliminary step in landfill engineering is the selection of the appropriate location of dumping the hazardous and non hazardous waste materials. The proper sitting of a landfill takes into account all factors of the surrounding landscape and environment and assures that the landfill is in compliance with the engineering and environmental stipulations. The factors associated with the task of landfill location are more and are essentially of spatial nature. When a huge database of is created for the critical parameters identity, the problem arises how to manage and analyze them. It is widely accepted that the management of solid waste is a global problem. This problem is even more pronounced in developing countries such as Nigeria where solid waste management is a major concern. Adeyemi et al, (2001) observed that solid waste constitute a major problem in most developing countries. Adeyemi added that waste management is one of the most intractable problems facing city administrators and environmental agencies. Ogwueleka, (2009) reported that solid waste management is by far one of the greatest challenges facing environmental bodies in the country. As a result of the management challenges, Adefemi and Awokunmi, (2009) reported a breakdown of law and order in relation to waste management. They observed that urban centres are experiencing an increased rate of environmental deterioration as a result of indiscriminate dumping of solid waste. Omuta, (2011) noted that one notable flaws in waste management administration in developing countries is the unavailability of a proper waste management policy. His view is that for waste management to work, various aspects of Government services such as engineering, urban planning, Geography, economics, public health and law among others must be brought together under a proper policy to deliver an effective waste management system. Ogwueleka (2009) argues that some of the approaches used in tackling the waste problems in Nigeria have recorded very little success. He observed that, the approaches do not distinguish the different needs and diversities of the different cities in the country. He added that these approaches are capital intensive and bureaucratic. Ezeah and Roberts, (2013) observed that the state of solid waste management in Nigeria has been a major concern to stakeholders. Ogwueleka (2009) reported that inefficient collection and unsafe disposal are some of the characteristics of waste management in Nigeria. Ogu (2010) highlighted that about 80 – 90% of the wastes generated in some low level income communities in Africa are not collected for safe disposal. Imam et al, (2009) reported that piles of waste are dumped by the road side and other open spaces thereby posing environmental risk. It is in response to these flaws that (Imam et al., 2008) submitted that solid waste has indeed becomes an important issue in Nigeria. To corroborate these submissions, (Izugbara and Umoh, 2013) reported that the waste management crisis in the country is already visible. They added that to a large extent, waste management contributes to social, political and environmental costs. These costs are thought to have enormous implications for the economy and the populace (Izugbara and Umoh, 2013). Omuta, (2011) reported that the major players involved with waste management in Nigeria are the public and the private sector. His view is that, the public sector is driven by the government agencies and the ministry of environments in the various states. He added that some of these governments agencies could be federal, states or local government bodies. On the other hand, he observed that private sector involvement in waste management is driven by private companies. He added that these companies either partners with government agencies or provide waste management services to companies, commercial premises or members of the public for a fee. He noted another form of private initiatives in solid waste management; these are the informal waste collectors which collect waste for a fee. This introduction of private companies in waste management became necessary as a result of the degradation of the environment from inefficient waste management practices (Ogu, 2010). Ogbonna et al., (2011) reported that in response to the enormous challenges pose by municipal solid waste management, the Government is taking steps to address these problems by engaging local contractors to evacuate waste. Ogu (2010) added that such steps were necessary in order to bring private sector investment into waste management and to enhance service delivery. Ogbonna et al. (2011) observed that cities are divided into sections for the local contractors. However, inefficiency still thrives due to the lack of coordination on the part of the Government and the lack of expertise on waste management issues by the environmental agencies. The reasons behind inefficient waste management practice in Nigeria have been well researched. For example, Agunwamba, (2009) reported that there is a general lackadaisical attitude on the part of the government towards waste management. In addition, Adeyemi et al, (2001) observed that in Nigeria the management of municipal solid waste revolves mainly around open burning, open dumps, land filling, reuse/recycling and waste conversion. Arukwe (2012) added that the only management practice adopted widely throughout Nigeria involves disposal of waste on open dumps.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Incidentally, from a pragmatic point of view, our customs and traditions have not helped in mobilizing for the environmental protection and safety; neighbourhood planning; and beautification of our core activity areas. Otherwise, had there been a system of collective action to keep our surroundings clean; and with penalties enforced to bring violators to bear the brunt of their transgressions, many residents would be motivated to follow personal hygiene details for timely waste clearance. The question then is where do residents dump their wastes – especially domestic wastes? The sad conclusion is that Nigeria’s urban centres and activity nuclei are inundated with solid wastes because of inadequate preparations for their removal, especially in far away and negligible dumpsites not easily accessible. There are few or no collective household receptacles for tenants and landlords to use for regular waste control disposal. There are very few or no designated zones along neighbourhood streets to dispose household wastes. In the emanating confusion, regardless of the impact of infrequent environmental sanitation exercises, urban residents dump solid wastes carelessly or haphazardly – anywhere they deem fit. Such controversial tendencies and attributes would seem incomprehensible; if we desire to live in beauteous environments. The failure of relevant agencies to stem the tide of reckless waste dumping and littering of our cities’ infrastructure (streets and roads) and surrounding bushes indicate a clear pattern of non-enforcement or non-implementation of existing environmental sanitation laws. The result and effects have been the acceleration of urban decay and its associated tendencies; especially of flight by the upwardly mobile inner city residents to the suburbs. Aside the impact of abandoned heaps of solid wastes on the environment, one factor stands out – that is urban decay as a social disorder. It is important to note that its eradication require new skills and technology which must be studied, understood, and implemented in order to bring about clean air and safe drinking water. Cities in Nigeria are critically affected by huge population fallouts, inadequate supplies of social amenities, and the inability of administrators to meet with the demand of expanding population clusters critically affect Cities in Nigeria. Irregular and unplanned dumping of solid wastes, especially at night, which are often in gross violation of relevant rules and regulations continue to hinder plan preparations and effective land use delineation which were expected to usher in a beautiful, clean and orderly environment.
1.3 AIMS OF THE STUDY
The major purpose of this study is to examine the assessment of access to waste dumpsites in Gidan Kwano. Other general objectives of the study are:
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H01: There is no significant impact of waste dump sites utilization for waste management activities on environmental sustainability.
H02: There is no significant relationship between access to waste dump site and environmental sustainability.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The general public, government and waste management agencies stand to benefit from this study. Empirically, the outcome of this research will enable the general public and government to grasp deeply the hazardous effect of reckless disposal of waste along every nook and cranny of the nation and factors that impede/hamper the implementation of waste management in Anambra State. Also, this study will equally strengthen government efforts towards the release of funds for waste evacuations and prompt payment of salaries to employees of these various agencies having vividly understood the import of poor waste management via extensive work done on this write-up. Theoretically, this study will make a useful contribution in the field of management as it will serve as another source of knowledge in the management of waste and material resources of the various establishments in Nigeria.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is based on the assessment of access to waste dumpsites in Gidan Kwano, Minna, Niger State.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Waste: Is the leftovers, used products whether liquid or solid having no economic value or demand and which must be disposed or thrown away.
Waste Management: It refers to the act to maintain acceptable environmental quality, sound public health and creation of aesthetic value.
Environment: It refers to the total surroundings of humans that support life.
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