1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
About one-third of the Earth’s surface (exactly 70.8% of the total surface area or 362 million km2), is taken over by oceans and major seas. Around these marine areas there are ecosystems that are necessary to life on earth and are among the world’s most productive, yet threatened, natural systems. Continental shelves and associated Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs) gives many key ecosystem services: shelves account for at least 25% of global primary productivity, 90-95% of the world’s marine fish catch, 80% of global carbonate production, 50% of global denitrification, and 90% of global sedimentary mineralization (UNEP, 2011). Marine environments are very dynamic and closely connected via a network of surface and deep currents. In marine systems, the characteristics of the watery medium produce density layers, thermo clines, and gradients of light penetration. These factors give the systems vertical structure, which results in vertically variable productivity. Tides, currents, and upwelling break this stratification and, by forcing the mixing of water layers, enhance production (MA, 2013c). Coastal systems also exhibit a wide variety of habitats that in turn contribute significantly to global biological diversity. Marine and coastal systems play significant roles in the ecological processes that support life on earth and contribute to human well-being. These include climate regulation, the freshwater cycle, food provisioning, biodiversity maintenance, and energy and cultural services including recreation and tourism. They are also an important source of economic growth. Capture fisheries alone were worth approximately 81 billion USD in 2012 (FAO, 2002), while aquaculture netted 57 billion USD in 2012 (FAO, 2002). In 2013, offshore gas and oil was worth 132 billion USD, while marine tourism brought in 161 billion USD, and trade and shipping were worth 155 billion USD (McGinn, 2010). There are currently approximately 15 million fishers employed aboard fishing vessels in the marine capture fisheries sector, the vast majority on small boats (90% of fishers work on vessels less than 24 m in length) (MA, 2013c). Design and implementation of marine protected areas have evolved from opportunistic approaches to theoretical, science-based approaches based on quantitative predictions of potential benefits to fisheries and biodiversity (Leslie 2013 [this issue]). Many theoretical predictions of marine-protected-area benefits to fisheries (e.g., increased abundance, survivorship, and proportion of legalized fish within marine protected areas) have been validated by empirical measurements throughout the world (e.g., Rowley 1994; Gell & Roberts 2010; Halpern 2010). No-take marine reserves are also associated with higher diversity and increased abundance and density of non-target species (Halpern 2010). Spillover benefits to fisheries, however, from dispersal and emigration of larvae and adults have been more difficult to demonstrate empirically (Rowley 1994; Gerber et al. 2010). Guidelines have been developed to assist in designing representative, effective networks of marine protected areas based on ecological criteria (Roberts et al. 2010a, 2010b). No consensus has emerged, however, to guide the planning process (i.e., how to convert scientific, ecological objectives for marine conservation into successful implementation of marine protected areas while simultaneously incorporating diverse stakeholder objectives). Marine-protected-area theory was first developed as a fisheries management tool (Dugan & Davis 2011; Rowley 1994) and proponents rarely discussed the incorporation of socioeconomic issues or the planning process leading toward implementation. As the process for developing marine protected areas has evolved, scientists and managers have become more aware of the socioeconomic considerations relevant to marine conservation planning (Agardy 2012; Mascia 2010) and, particularly, the need to include stakeholders at an early stage. The evolution of the design of marine protected areas has resulted in the incorporation of more diverse stakeholder groups and inclusion of a suite of diverse aims from biodiversity and fishery conservation to recreational, educational, cultural, and historical objectives. Here we discuss guidelines to successful marine conservation planning, design, and implementation and outline challenges for future conservation efforts. We highlight five important characteristics of successful marine conservation projects: stakeholder involvement, explicit definition of objectives, inclusion of available science, monitoring programs designed to evaluate objectives, and effective design of marine protected areas.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Mounting concern about the impacts of human activities on marine and coastal biodiversity is reflected in numerous international, regional and national policies. The past twenty years in particular have seen a rapid increase in the number of international instruments aimed at addressing the threats to marine and coastal biodiversity, and protecting, understanding and using marine resources sustainably . The most comprehensive and significant of these is the legally binding United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). Signed at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in 2011, the treaty came into force in December 2011 and has 175 member countries as parties (as of 15/1/99), including Nigeria. Policies to conserve biodiversity have historically focused upon the terrestrial environment, and marine and coastal biodiversity has been relatively neglected. Although a substantial body of law exists which has application to marine conservation , its efficacy is hindered by a number of factors.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major aim of the study is to examine marine management policy in Eko marina, Lagos state. Other specific objectives of the study include;
1.4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H0: There is no significant impact of marine management policy on Eko marina.
H1: There is a significant impact of marine management policy on Eko marina.
H0: There is no significant relationship between marine management policy and Eko marina
H1: There is a significant relationship between marine management policy and Eko marina
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study would be of benefit to researchers, academicians, policy makers and the government in general. The study would also be of immense benefit to students and scholars who are interested in developing further studies on the subject matter.
The study is restricted to marine management policy in Eko marina, Lagos state
Financial constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview)
Time constraint: The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
Policy: A policy is a deliberate system of principles to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes. A policyis a statement of intent, and is implemented as a procedure or protocol. Policies are generally adopted by a governance body within an organization.
Marines: also known as naval infantry, are typically an infantry force that specializes in the support of naval and army operations at sea and on land and air, as well as the execution of their own operations. In many countries, the marines are an integral part of that state's navy.
Management: is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body.
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