BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Water pollution is a serious world problem which requires a proper evaluation and revision of water resource policy at various levels (international down to individual aquifers and wells). It has been recommended that it is the major global cause of deaths and diseases and that it accounts for the deaths of more than 14,000 people daily (West, 2010; Pink, 2010). Water is necessary to the existence of all living organisms, but this valued resource is highly being threatened as human populations increase and demand more water of high quality for domestic purposes and economic activities [UNEPGEMS, 2012]. The significance of water to human and other biological systems cannot be over emphasized, and there are numerous scientific and economic facts that, water shortage or its pollution can lead to serious decrease in productivity and deaths of living things (Garba et al., 2012; 2010). Neat and enough quantity of water provide the basis for prosperous communities. We base on neat water to survive, yet as it is now we are moving towards a water crisis. Over the last years, in many African countries a considerable population growth has taken place, accompanied by a steep increase in urbanization, industrial and agricultural land use. This has necessitated a tremendous rise in disposal of a large diversity of pollutants to receiving water bodies and has caused undesirable effects on the different components of the aquatic environment and on fisheries [Saad et al., 2011]. Due to that, there is rapid appreciation that globally the management and utilization of water resources need to be enhanced and that the volume of waste and pollution generated by human activity need to be minimized on a large scale. The quality of any body of surface or ground water is a function of either or both natural influences and human activities [Stark et al., 2009; Kolawole et al., 2012]. It is now generally agreed that aquatic environments cannot be deemed simply as holding tanks that supply water for human activities. Rather, these environments are complex matrices that require conscious use to ensure sustainable ecosystem functioning well into the future [UNEPGEMS, 2012]. The common sources of water that are made available to various communities in Nigeria are speedily being severed by a number of anthropogenic factors, of which pollution remain the most prevailing problem Galadima et al.(2011). Water pollution takes place when unwanted materials with capacity to threaten human and other natural Eco systems find their ways into rivers, lakes, wells, streams, boreholes or even reserved fresh water in homes and industries. Water pollution is the release of foul water from commercial and industrial waste into surface waters; release of untreated domestic sewage, and chemical contaminants, such as chlorine, from treated sewage; discharge of waste and contaminants into surface runoff flowing to surface waters (including urban runoff and agricultural runoff, which may contain chemical fertilizers and pesticides); waste disposal and leaching into groundwater; eutrophication and littering. Rivers are the most vital freshwater resource for human beings. Sadly, waters are being contaminated by incessant discharge of sewerage, industrial waste and series of human activities, which affects their physico-chemical features and microbiological component [Kosh and Nayar, 2013]. Increasing numbers and volume of industrial, commercial chemicals and agricultural disposal into the aquatic system have led to various deleterious effects on aquatic bodies. Aquatic animals accumulate pollutants directly from polluted water and indirectly via the food chain [Hammer, 2015; Mohammed, 2009]. The pollutants are mainly pathogens, soils, sewage materials, disposed foods, cosmetics, automobile emissions, construction debris and eroded banks from rivers and other waterways (Galadima et al., 2011). Owing to the large quantity of effluent discharged to the receiving waters, the natural processes of pathogen reduction are inadequate for protection of public health. According to Gerardi & Zimmarman, 2011 industrial wastes that interfere with the water pH and produce excessive bacterial components often hinder the ability of natural processes to inactivate and destroy pathogens. The level of release of domestic and industrial effluents is such that rivers obtaining untreated effluent cannot provide the dilution vital for their survival as good quality water sources. The movement of unfavorable releases from industries is detrimental to climate change [Adekunle & Eniola, 2012]. Discharge of sewage wastes into a large volume of water could increase the biological oxygen demands to such a high level that all the available oxygen may be taken away. In Nigeria today research indicates that, majority of the common fresh water sources are polluted, resulting to serious climate impact. According to Kolawole et al. (2011) prevention of water pollution requires effective supervision of physico-chemical and microbiological parameters. The major risks to human health related with the consumption of contaminated water are microbiological in nature [WHO, 2014].The bacteriological examination of water has a special significance in pollution studies, as it is a direct measurement of deleterious effect of pollution on human health [APHA, 2012]. Effluent discharge practices in Nigeria are yet too crude and society is in danger, especially in the industrialized part of the cities. The Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) established to check these environmental abuses has had little or no impact on climate [Ezeronye & Amogu, 2009]. Therefore the study examines water pollution; effects, prevention and climate impact in Nigeria.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Industrialization, in any society, is a major initiator of development and urbanization. Although the merits of industrialization are innumerable, it has been identified as a major threat to the environment as it releases various toxic chemicals, gases, solid wastes as well as microbes of various kinds into our immediate environment—land, air, and water. Of particular interest is water pollution, which has become a global challenge, developing nations being highly affected due to their drive for development Pollution of our water bodies poses a great threat to humans and the aquatic ecosystem while marked population increase catalyzes climatic changes [Palmate SS et al 2017]. For instance, various human activities as well as the release of greenhouse gases by industries greatly contributes to global warming, planet temperature enhancement, and lowering of atmospheric air quality. The drive for sustainable development must bring along water pollution prevention techniques. Effective wastewater treatment before their eventual discharge is one way to driving water pollution prevention. Some remediate climate change mitigation measures against water pollution can also be explored. Hence the study examines, water pollution; effects, prevention and climate impact in Nigeria.
AIMS OF THE STUDY
The major aim of the study is to examine water pollution; effects, prevention and climate impact in Nigeria. Other specific objectives of the study include;
There are is no significant effect of water pollution on climate change.
There is a significant effect of water pollution on climate change.
H0: There is no significant relationship between water pollution and climate impact.
H1: There is a significant relationship between water pollution and climate impact.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study will be of profound benefits to enlighten the people and government on the effect of water pollution its preventive measures and climate impact. This study would also be of immense benefit to students and scholars who are interested in developing further studies on the subject matter.
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study is restricted to water pollution; effects, prevention and climate impact in Nigeria.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Financial constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview)
Time constraint: The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Water pollution: is the contamination of water bodies (e.g., lakes, rivers, oceans and ground water).
Climate: the weather conditions prevailing in an area in general or over a long period.
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