1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Terrorism hit Nigeria with shock as the media brought to the knowledge of Nigerians the BokoHaram incessant attack in the North East of Nigeria. Nigerians are glued to media report as no one can actually tell what is happening where, when, and how it will happen. Bomb blasts have become a regular occurrence. And seeing that there is much dependence on the media for information, it then appears that the manner in which information are reported will go a long way to effect changes in areas that require such especially in curbing the recent menace of terrorist attacks by the Boko-haram terrorist group in Nigeria. The Nigerian media being imbued with that consciousness in its tradition of being outspoken carry’s such responsibility of making change in the society. In Ayo Olukoyuns article (2004),he quotes Oseni(2009) that the media is charged with the role of holding governments accountable and guarding against the abuse of power, hence the need to raise countervailing structures of surveillance to monitor government’s activities and stem an inherent disposition towards excess. Terrorism disorganized America’s sense of invulnerability and unparalleled might on a sunny September morning. Almost overnight, the American landscape went from one of prosperity, safety, and power to one of threat, fear, and uncertainty. This was the same case with Nigeria, when to the disheartening of all bombs were going up killing innocent people. (Channels T.V, 2013)The worst happened when the Chibok girls were abducted, and till date their recovery has become a herculean task. The media swung into action immediately giving a run-down of events. This greatly seemed to check the rate at which the attacks occurred as the media disseminated information on the mode of operation of these terrorists. Threat and fear are not simply a psychological phenomena they are politically consequential for how elites and the mass media communicate with the public and, ultimately, for opinion formation. In times of crisis, citizens turn to political leaders and the media to make sense of new and frightening events. The contours of the information environment in turn influence how people prefer the government to react to threat or terror. Shana Kushner Gadarian (2010) posits that several scholars have variously described the mass media as gadgets used to effect mass communication. For example, Defleur and Dennis(1981) define the mass media as “devices for moving messages across distance or time to accomplish mass communication.” The issue of application of the term “mass media” to technical devices is crucial to the understanding of the concept. Throughout the world, the issue of mass communication that is, the act of sending or transmitting information from a source to a far-flung heterogeneous mass audience through an electronic means is used. Little wonder why Bittner (1989) says, “Mass communication is message communicated through mass medium to large group of people”. According toBiagi (2003), “mass communication is communication from one person or group of persons through a transmitting device (a medium) to large audiences or markets”. Sambe (2005) expressively points out that: Mass communication can be defined as a device by which a group of people working together transmits information to a large heterogeneous and anonymous audience simultaneously. It is a process by which information originates from the source to the receiver, having been thoroughly filtered and transmitted through a channel. In synergy with definitions above, among several others, as put forward by communication scholars, it is obvious that mass communication (media) cannot take place except with the availability of devices such as transmitter, television, and other gadgets to serve as medium, channel, among others. A large number of people as noted in the assertions above has always utilized these medium of mass communication, in receiving information. It can be seen that all the definitions given have some things in common that is, transmitting message via a medium to large groups of different people simultaneously. (Utulu, 2012) Terrorism is older than the ancient civilizations of Greece and Rome. Despite the fact that terrorism is an old phenomenon, the term terrorism has neither a precise definition nor one which is widely acceptable. In fact, terrorism has changed its character and meaning in time and space. What was true for one terrorist group in a certain place at a certain time does not necessarily apply to another in a different country at another time, reflecting different politics and traditions. As a result, consensus has been elusive over a universally accepted definition of terrorism. The conceptual problem posed over the years is best reflected in the famous statement: 'One man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter'. (Maleeha Lodhi, 2006) The term terrorism first came into use at the time of the reign of Terror' during the French Revolution; it was employed in connection with the intimidating practice of the government in power from 1789 to 1794. Terrorism, as a word in its usual usage, has a connotation of evil, indiscriminate violence, or brutality. Thus, to label a group or action as terrorist is to seek to imply that the actors or the violence is immoral, wrong, or contrary to obvious basic ethical principles that any reasonable human being holds. The US Department of Defense approved definition of terrorism is: 'The calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of unlawful violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious or ideological'.(Military guide to terrorism) some of these terrorist groups are, the Alshaabab, ISIS, ISIL, Boko-Haram, Alquaeda, to mention but a few. The media has brought the activities of these terrorist groups to the knowledge of many, stating their locations and mode of activity. This has led Nigerians to take precaution of where to go, and draw the attention of the government for quick policy decisions on arresting the situation.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Radio as a medium of communication militates against terrorism by its regular broadcast of news material in current affairs, politics and terrorist attacks, Morgan, (2011). Radio campaign is still one of the best ways against terrorism, (ibid, p. 143). Osisioma which is the main focus state of this research witnesses the proliferation of local radio stations both state-owned and privately-owned stations. Government at all levels struggles to control the sphere in the state using radio as a means of disseminating their messages during and after terrorist attack. This development saw the establishment of many radio stations in comparison to other forms of media, both in and across Nigerian state. The issue is whether the huge radio campaign against terrorism being aired on local radio have bearing to creation and sustenance of awareness of the residents in Osisioma. Furthermore, it is a question for determination whether or not there is a relationship between radio campaign and terrorism.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major aim of the study is to examine influence of radio campaign against terrorism among Osisoma residents. Other specific objectives of the study include;
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H0: There is no significant influence of radio campaign on terrorism among Osisioma residents
H1: There is a significant impact of radio campaign on terrorism among Osisioma residents
H0: There is no significant relationship between radio campaign and terrorism among Osisioma residents.
H1: There is a significant relationship between radio campaign and terrorism among Osisioma residents
The study would be of benefit to enlighten the government at all levels on the need to sit up and proffer solution to the problem of terrorism in Nigeria which has a negative effect on national development. The study would also be of immense benefit to students, researchers and scholars who are interested in developing further studies on the subject matter.
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study is restricted to influence of radio campaign against terrorism among Osisoma residents.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Financial constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview)
Time constraint: The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Radio: is the technology of signaling or communicating using radio waves.
Terrorism: the unlawful use of violence and intimidation, especially against civilians, in the pursuit of political aims.
OTHER SIMILAR MASS COMMUNICATION PROJECTS AND MATERIALS