The introduction of social media has increase interaction among people, creating them to be producers and consumers of information in a simultaneous manner. Social media such as Facebook, Twitter and 2go have brought tremendous improvement within the communication system; it has provided different entertainment functions which serve as a tool for social change. With the help of the web, users can form his/her own page, assess news online easily and upload business and advertisement online in order to get customers to purchase products. It is also an avenue to share or transfer photos of individual or events, groups can be formed to meet people with similar interests. According to (Kim and Kim, 2010): Social or new media are the emerging digital communication channels which create a user oriented information sharing ground where any people can generate or subscribe information content as both information provider and consumer. Although social media are powerful tools that has improved interaction in communication, and reduced the utilization of conventional broadcasting, there is still some complimentary role it shares with conventional broadcasting in terms of news, advertisement, reaching large audiences among others. Whereas, differences conventional broadcasting shares with social media includes quality, frequency, usability, immediacy, and permanence (Social Media, 2013). For a society to exist and perform there must be a functioning media. This truth has already been established within the different earliest societies that make up the entity Nigeria. The Media are therefore shaping people's everyday lives, politics and cultural activities to a greater extent than ever before. We live in a society that depends on the media for information, data and communication that guides our daily activities like work, entertainment, health care, education, personal relationships, travelling and anything else that we do. Extolling the role of the mass media in the society Dominick (2002) writes that: May be the best way to appreciate the role the mass communication plays in our society would be to imagine what it would be like if, all of a sudden, the whole system never existed. Obviously, the mass media are a pervasive part of our live. A very important space in today’s broadcasting world over is the technology and instruments for the transmission of media messages. Modern technology has transformed the shape and dimension of broadcasting. Broadcasting media technology has undergone speedy changes and continued until the early 20th century. Modern technologies are nowadays enhancing and facilitating the communication method activities, as well as help the generation and dissemination of information more efficiently to highly dispersed audience in the world. Olorede and Oyewole (2013) claim that: The catalyst for the transformation of media newsrooms is modern technology. These technologies have additionally increased media credibility, reliability and even affordability and accessibility, as events can be reported as simultaneously as they unfold, with little or no interference and audience’s access at a relatively affordable cost. These technologies have conjointly refurbished the obsolete face of media newsrooms; the new refined computers have replaced the previous, time-consuming and outdated typewriters, and so on. In the same vein, Dimoudi (2002) said, “The new media technologies are perceived to empower people and democratize the relationships between consumers and producers of content (which could be news or information). It also connects to on-line media logic as a concept which includes the notions of the audience as an active agent in redefining the workings of journalism.” Thus, the emergence of new technologies particularly the internet and social media have created a variety of opportunities of reaching international audiences. Although, social media started out as a platform where friends and families can connect and socialize, today, sites like Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Youtube, MySpace, Flicker, Net log, and Slide share, are connecting broadcast audiences to the newsroom in new and exciting ways that will not only boost the news and event coverage of both local and international broadcast stations, but also impact positively on the society.
Television Broadcasting has its own unique way of delivering its contents, and that is, writing for ears and the eyes (the audio and visuals) to inform, educate and entertaining viewers through an editorial guideline. Similarly, social media platforms have general unique features and guidelines for its usage. Facebook has a “News Feed, Like, Comment, Share, Timeline, What is in your mind, Chats, audio-visual and photo among other features. Twitter has a tag mode for searching and connecting more than ten people, Add more icon, enable users to add pictures to the tweet message, Hashtags, for marking keywords or topics of a message. Twitter template, can only accommodate 140 words. YouTube social media platform is a miniature TV on its own with over twenty features prominent among them are, captions and sub-titles which provides additional layer to write short message about the video and translated automatically into different languages, audio swap, used for audio tracking from playlists, feather mode, meant for video streaming and charts, which allow people to find all the latest content on the YouTube. Social media platforms have demystified the fundamental roles of conventional broadcasting which gives exclusive rights to television stations to broadcast news and programmes on TV sets, satellite and Cable. Every TV station now pushes its contents on mobile applications. 6 The implications of these trends are: TV contents can be accessed on mobile devices with purchase of more data for access by viewers or users; hence there must be value for the money and time through enriched contents. To deliver these contents, TV stations required high broadband internet connectivity for streaming, highly skilled professionals in the IT areas and more multimedia Journalists needed by TV stations with its attendant costs. However, the realisation of some of these implications remains major challenges for the use of social media platforms for television broadcast in Nigeria. This study will therefore examine the influence of social media on conventional broadcast (Channels Television) in Nigeria as one of the TV stations in the country that is using the social media platforms for broadcast.
The major purpose of this study is to examine the influence of social media on conventional broadcasting in Nigeria. Other general objectives of the study are:
1. To examine how channels TV uses social media tools and technologies in Nigeria.
2. To examine the challenges faced by social media and conventional broadcasting in Nigeria.
3. To examine the influence of social media on conventional broadcasting in Nigeria.
4. To examine the relationship between social media and conventional broadcasting in Nigeria.
5. To examine the challenges facing channels TV as a result of the proliferation of social media.
6. To examine ways through which social networks have been incorporated into broadcasting.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. Do channels TV uses social media tools and technologies in Nigeria?
2. What are the challenges faced by social media and conventional broadcasting in Nigeria?
3. What is the influence of social media on conventional broadcasting in Nigeria?
4. What is the relationship between social media and conventional broadcasting in Nigeria?
5. What are the challenges facing channels TV as a result of the proliferation of social media?
6. What are the ways through which social networks have been incorporated into broadcasting?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will enable the stakeholders in the broadcasting industry to appreciate the contributions of social media platforms to television broadcast, evaluate its challenges and come up with new strategies to solve the unique problems of using social media platforms for broadcast in the 21st century. The study will also assist Channels Television and other electronic media organisations in Nigeria now using the social media platforms to develop editorial guidelines for broadcasts to understand potential challenges of using the social media as effective tools of mass communication in the 21st century. The research will also help Channels TV to know their viewers preference for any of the social media platforms for broadcast of its news and programmes.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is based on the influence of social media on conventional broadcasting in Nigeria, a case study of channels TV, Benue state.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Social Media: Social media is becoming an integral part of life online as social websites and applications proliferate. Most traditional online media include social components, such as comment fields for users. In business, social media is used to market products, promote brands, and connect to current customers and foster new business.
Influence: According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (7th ed.). Influence is the effect that somebody or something has on the way a person thinks or behaves or on the way that something works or develops. It could be further said as the power that somebody or something has to make somebody or something behave in a particular way.
Broadcast: This is the business of sending out radio and television signals over a distance, to a large heterogeneous audience by means of airwaves.
OTHER SIMILAR MASS COMMUNICATION PROJECTS AND MATERIALS