BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Intelligence simply refers the collection of information of military or political value. It is common knowledge that nations require intelligence about their immediate environment and that of other nations. This is necessary because, in order to guarantee their security, they need to keep track of internal and external threats (Lowenthal, 2000). Consequently, nations require certain instruments to contain these threats. These are a strong military supported by an intelligence apparatus. Also, nations adopt strategies and policies such as defence and security policies to enable them to respond appropriately and safeguard them from both external and internal threats (Enahoro, 2010). Intelligence, as a critical tool of statecraft, provides the necessary warning about imminent threats policy makers in order to protect a nation from being subjected to surprise military attacks. Intelligence as an organization is able to avert imminent threats to a country by providing timely, processed information to national security decision makers. This is achieved through the acquisition of covert information by covert means on the actions, policies and capabilities of other nations. The information, which is of utmost importance to national security, is collected, analyzed and disseminated for use to support action. Thus, the role of intelligence is to support action that may be deemed necessary in the furtherance of national interests (Lowenthal, 2007). Intelligence is a critical element in the success of all human endeavour, be it in business, governance or military operations. In the context of military operations, intelligence is vital for guiding operations. If the intelligence is right; chances are that the operation will be successful. The significance of this assertion was illustrated in the operations Desert shield and Desert storm in the Persian Gulf War of 1991. Adequate intelligence was provided to the US military during these operations. The operations were successful due to the accuracy of the indepth intelligence on enemy vulnerabilities, capabilities and intentions. Security operations are the procedures and actions taken by security agencies to protect lives and properties in order to ensure there is no state of insecurity within a society. The conduct of security operations in Nigeria is shaped by the peculiarity of the security environment; thus, security operation could be proactive or reactive. When it is proactive, it involves essentially the use of intelligence to avert any threat to national security. These threats could be in the form of sabotage, subversion, terrorism and all other destructive actions that could undermine national security. Reactive security operations involve the use of security apparatuses to contain conflicts that are already on ground. When that happens, states involve security operations that are reactive in nature and the use of military force is employed in conjunction with national intelligence assets to contain threats (Jackson et al, 2004).
In Nigeria, these internal threats manifest mostly in the form of communal conflicts, both inter and intra, ethnic, religious as well as finding expression in militant activities. Typical examples of a security operation in Nigeria include the Joint Tasks Force (JTF) Operation RESTORE HOPE in Niger Delta, Op FLUSHOUT III in Rivers State and Op HARMONY IV in the Bakassi Peninsular. The mandate of these security operations was to reverse the state of insecurity in the affected areas. Nigeria has had to grapple over the years with the challenge of inadequate intelligence sharing amongst its security and law enforcement agencies. The non effectiveness of the intelligence in support of security operations in Nigeria are attributed to inadequate human and technical intelligence capabilities.
STATEMENT OF THE GENERAL PROBLEM
To conduct intelligence activities, the Federal Government has a variety of agencies such as the Department of State Service (DSS) also known as the state security service(SSS), the Defence Intelligence Agency (DIA) and the National Intelligence Agency (NIA). These security agencies have over time developed capacities to produce timely and accurate intelligence to confront cases that threaten national unity and security. Regrettably, the proper management and accurate designation of tasks for these intelligence agencies to support national security objectives has been a major problem. In the same vein, the views of operatives that intelligence management in Nigeria is fraught with lack of analytical skills, and questionable real time intelligence which negates the value of intelligence product in security operations. These contending issues have therefore thrown up renewed interest in the analysis of intelligence management and support to security operations in Nigeria in recent years.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The major aim of the study is to study intelligence management and its impact on security in Nigeria. Other objectives of the study are;
H01: There is no significant impact of intelligence management on security in Nigeria.
H02: There is significant relationship between intelligence management and adequate security in Nigeria.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study would be of immense importance to government at all levels, security agencies and all related stakeholders as it would highlight the role of intelligence on security in Nigeria with a view to providing improved security to lives and properties which is a major responsibility of government in Nigeria. The study would also benefit students, researchers and scholars who are interested in developing further studies on the subject matter by being a source of related and recent literature.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is on intelligence management and its impact on security using department of state security (DSS) in Lagos state as a case study.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
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