1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Women’s role in conflict resolution and prevention, peace building, peacemaking and reconciliation cannot be over-estimated or overemphasized. This is because apart from performing their biological and social activities of caring, giving birth, and bringing up humans as mothers, women also have the potentials of partaking in activities that is geared towards peaceful resolution of conflict as well as well in peace building. Equally women have been at the forefront of efforts to build peace across the world. According to (Lute 2002) women are often the stabilizing force in the societies in which they exist. This is certainly true in post conflict settings where women represents essentially, the backbone of reconstruction and rehabilitation as well as the re-integration of former combatants and the re-emergence of basic economic activities in a society which is a war torn society , once peace has been achieved. Long before the recognition of the role of women in peace building process, they had already been very much involved in such activity. As a social group, women have been suitably identified as being pro-peace. Women have been highly visible in the forefront of movements for non violence and peace worldwide. Women usually assume the roles of peacemakers in families, in communities and in society even though they have often been victims (Agbu, Anike-Nweze, Idachaba and Durojaye 2006). Women have been at the forefront of efforts to build peace in countries all over the world. In many instances women have come to the peace negotiations united across party, class and ethnic differences. Their unity and determination to make peace may come from their everyday experiences and concerns: protecting their children; finding food, clean water or shelter, protecting themselves from the violence and particularly sexual and gender-based violence associated with conflict (Ilesanmi and Agbu 2014). To show the importance of women in peace building The UN Security Council on 31st Oct. 2000 adopted The Resolution 1325, which deals with women, peace and security. This Resolution highlighted the importance of bringing gender perspectives to the center of the UN conflict prevention and resolution, peace building, peacekeeping, rehabilitation and reconstruction efforts. This Resolution was initiated after the UN Secretary General was invited to do a study on the impact of conflicts on women, girls, the role of women in peace building and the gender dimensions of peace processes and conflict resolution. In line with the above resolution of the United Nation, The African Heads of States in a solemn declaration on gender equality adopted by African Heads of State and Government on July 6, 2004, agreed to: Ensure the full and effective participation and representation of women in peace process, including the prevention , resolution, management of conflicts and post conflict reconstruction in Africa as stipulated in UN Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000) and to also appoint women as special envoys and special representatives of the African Union. (Agbu, Bolarinwa Mbagwu, and Durojaye, 2006). Since the adoption of the United Nations Resolution 1325 (2000), some form of progress albeit minimal have been recorded in acknowledging the roles played by women in conflict resolution and post conflict peace building, as well as integrating women into decision making level of peace policies and processes (Ilesanmi and Agbu 2014). Before the UN Security Council Resolution 1325 of 2000, The Kigali Declaration of 1997 had reinforced positive and active roles of women in peacemaking and peace building, and their peace-enduring attitudes as well as love. The Declaration recognize(s) women’s traditional peacemaking roles and their right to equal involvement in all peace initiatives, including early warning mechanisms and swift responses at national, regional and international levels (Kigali Declaration, 1997). Conflict had been described by many scholars, as inevitable, among who include Mitchel and Banks (1996) who posit that in the actual sense, conflict is an inevitable phenomenon that keeps occurring in all human relationships. It has been a fundamental question that is unanswered by the scholars of conflict resolution, because in principle conflict resolution connotes a sense of finality. There is no consensus among scholars on the definition of conflict as each defined it according to the writer’s perspective but what seems to be common in the scholarly definitions is that conflict occurs when there is a state of struggle, opposition, incompatibility, interference, divergence of interest, tension, interaction and interdependence among others (Adenyi 2014). According to Boulding (1989), human beings as social animals have always been embroiled in temporary and continuous disputes and fracas collectively called conflicts since time immemorial. This come in the form of individuals against individuals, families against families, kingdoms against kingdoms, and more contemporary, countries against countries. According to Rubin and Pruitt (2002) conflict can be defined as the perceived divergence of interest, or a belief that the party’s current aspirations cannot be achieved simultaneously from gradual interactions between the parties. Bercovitch (2002) added that they are ultimately a direct result of the given relationships and interactions between species, will in one way or another breed friction and discontent thereby, giving rise to perceived injustice and the attendant frictions and agitations Resolving conflict or otherwise conflict resolution is aimed at nipping such conflict in the bud by identifying the underlying and root causes of such conflict. Anyanwu (2013) posits that conflict resolution is generally conceptualized as the methods and processes involved in facilitating the peaceful resolution or ending of conflict. Conflict resolution is an expected situation where the deep-rooted sources of conflict are addressed and resolved, and the behaviour is no longer violent, nor the attitudes hostile any longer and the structure of the conflict has been changed (Miall, Oliver and Tom, 1999). In the same manner, Mitchel and Banks (1996), sees conflict resolution as an outcome in which the issues in an existing conflict are satisfactorily dealt with, through a solution that is mutually acceptable to the parties, and self sustaining in the long run and productive of a new positive relationship between the parties that were previously hostile adversaries. It is also a process or procedure by which such an outcome is achieved. The importance of women as agents of peace and their role as mothers made it possible that in war time, it is a taboo to kill a woman even if she is armed. This is because women were the mothers of the male combatants. Even when a woman is mistakenly killed during warfare, there must be appeasement of the land. The respect accorded to woman during warfare which takes its root from traditional African society and further extended to International arena which made provisions for the protection of women in both conventional and unconventional warfare. Women play a unique role in the reconciliation process in several societies, their place in society puts them in a strong position to encourage dialogue between disputing parties. It is in the light of the above that this study is embarked upon to explore and appraise their role in the management of conflict in Nigeria.
It is well known that women and girls are profoundly affected by violent conflict. As well as experiencing the same as their male counterparts, their experience is different and they experience particular, gender-based violations or abuse of their human rights. For example, conflict-induced displacement has a differential impact on women, men, girls and boys, while the type of violence experienced during violent conflict frequently differs according to gender as well as other factors such as age and ethnicity. “Violence against women both violates and impairs or nullifies the enjoyment by women of their human rights and fundamental freedoms. In all societies, to a greater or lesser degree, women and girls are subjected to physical, sexual and psychological abuse that cuts across lines of income, class and culture”. According to the 2012 Gender in Nigeria report, Nigeria’s 80.2 million women and girls have significantly worse life chances than men and also their sisters in comparable societies. Violence compounds and reinforces this disadvantage and exclusion. Women and girls are, however, largely excluded from participating in conflict management, mediation or inter-group negotiations. In some areas, women are almost universally excluded from public life per se, a situation that may be exacerbated in situations of violent conflict. On the other hand, women have the capacity to take action with regard to conflict and in some areas have already done so. The challenge for both national and international programmes, therefore, is to remove the obstacles to women’s effective participation and organising.
The major purpose of this study is to examine the defence and police officers wives association other women organization among women in Nigeria. Other general objectives of the study are:
1.4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study has theoretical and practical significance. Theoretically, the study analyses conflict, its consequences, effects and resolutions as well as the role women of the study area play not only in resolving conflict but also in preventing and managing it. The study makes effort to fill the gap on the existing body of knowledge and literature on conflict and conflict management as well as women’s role in the management of conflicts, peacemaking, peace building, and reconciliation. This study will make effort to inquire or appraise the role the women organizations of the study area play in conflict management.
Practically, the study is targeted at provoking the full utilization of the women’s potentials as agents of peace in conflict management processes in Nigeria in general and in addition to contributing to the existing body of knowledge on the role of women organizations in conflict management, this study will also spur and assist researchers and students of Peace Studies and Conflict Resolutions in the area of further research and knowledge on the subject matter in the country.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is based on the defence and police officers wives association other women organization and conflict management among women in Nigeria.
1.8. LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9. DEFINITION OF TERMS
Conflict:- It is a state of struggle, opposition, incompatibility, and interference, divergence of interest, tension, interaction and interdependence among others. It also refers to a relation between two or more parties who believe they have incompatible goals. It is a situation where two or more people perceive themselves as being in a state of incompatibility with each side trying to outdo the other. It could be over resources, values, psychological needs or inadequate information.
OTHER SIMILAR SECURITY MANAGEMENT PROJECTS AND MATERIALS