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AN EVALUATION OF CHILD LABOUR ON PUNCTUALITY AND STUDY HABITS AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS (A CASE STUDY OF ETI OSA, LAGOS)

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 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1 - 5 ::   Pages: 108 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis,Abstract  ::   29 people found this useful

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SOCIOLOGY UNDERGRADUATE PROJECT TOPICS, RESEARCH WORKS AND MATERIALS

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Child abuse is one of the most challenging social catastrophes attracting public attention the world over (Alokan & Olatunji, 2014). According to Moss and Moss (1999) child abuse is any act of omission by parents, guardians or any caregivers that results in non-accidental physical or mental injury, or sexual abuse. In addition, Denga and Denga (2007) state that cruel behaviour on children by teachers, parents, peers, guardians, siblings and the society in general constitute child abuse. The researchers observe that Swaziland is not spared of this evil phenomenon, hence the need to carry out a study of this nature. Child abuse takes place in the home environment, at school, in church, hospitals, orphanages and in any place; public or private. In the light of this therefore, Augustine and Abubaker (2016) lamented that there is no safe place for children anymore because child abuse is rampant everywhere. Children are special link between the present and future generation, they are a pride of every parent. Childhood is a stage, every child goes through in life, where they are generally regarded as not able to make serious decisions, and legally must always be under the care of a responsible adult. According to Orazen (2003) childhood is a phase of life when a child is free from all tension, fun-loving, plays and learns new things, and is also the sweetheart of the family. From the researcher’s observation, not all children go through the beautiful stage of childhood; most children went through this period in full tension and burden, made to work to help in maintaining their families. This is called child labour. Child labour is a complex phenomenon, mostly common in rural areas of African and Asian countries. According to Ehiemere (2000), child labour constituted street hawking, farm work and domestic chores such as taking care of babies, fetching water and firewood, preparing and cooking food, individual cleanliness and washing. Most of the research findings stated earlier affirmed that child’s labour age to be under fifteen to eighteen years of age as most affected. Therefore, the present study considering the family background of the people in Niger State (farmers), will identify child labour age to be between nine and fourteen years of age. This is in addition to their ability to assist their family physically and financially. Gunnarsson and Orazem (2003) on the other hand observed that child labour means work done by children under fifteen (15) years of age and generally takes two forms, these are: one unpaid child’s work in the household or on a household farm, and two the paid child’s work or labour which is outside the home in the market or enterprise. In some home’s girls are more likely to work inside the home while boys work outside. The above is similar to what is happening in Niger State, child labour has no gender difference on attendance and academic performance of both sex. Calfee (2000) and Santrock (2001) affirmed that education is an important dimension of children’s life. People usually associate education with schools; however, education also occurs in contexts other than school. Children learn from their parents, their siblings, their peers, books, watching television and from the computers. Primary education is the first stage of compulsory education. It is preceded by pre-school or nursery education and is followed by secondary education. In most countries, it is compulsory for children to receive primary education. The major goals of primary education are achieving basic literacy and numeracy abilities by pupils, as well as establishing foundations in science, geography, history and other social science. The researcher observed these were lacking due to the poor school attendance in most school from the 2010/2011 administrative record used by school authority and parents to monitor, control, and supervise pupil’s activities in school. In order to check pupils or students commitment to receiving instruction from the teachers, an administrative record is designed and used on daily basis that is the attendance register Oghuvbu (2001). Oghuvbu (1999) and Alio (2003) looked at motivation of pupil’s attendance through family status and positive educational attitude of parents as well as a right geographical location of schools with appropriate facilities. The researcher observed that in Niger State even when tuition fee is free, uniforms, books, sandals and transport fare have to be provided. This decreases the probability of school attendance and increase the probability of work. According to Jensen and Nielson, (1997), Ray (2000), an increase in the returns to education increases the number of children, increases the probability of school attendance and decreases the probability of work condition as the number of children. Ravallion and Wodon, (2000), affirmed that an increase in income or wealth causes increases in the number of children and the likelihood of school attendance condition on the number of children and decreases the likelihood on work. School attendance is a vital administrative record necessary in all the public primary schools in the State. It is recorded by taking the number of pupils‟ attendance multiply by the number of school days of the week and divided by the number of children in class. Study habits meant how pupils or students deal with their studies and how they cope with or accomplish their different task given to them by their teachers. In Niger State most primary school children recorded low grades in their academic performance scores, from the record of the State ministry of education. The above therefore was a source of concern to the researcher, who in this study will find out methods to improve on pupil’s study habits achieved through progress chart, example spelling and mental test charts, continuous assessment and examination. Onomodeke (2005) observed that for a pupil to be successful in his or her academic performance, the pupil has to be regular in school, face learning problems squarely, avoid late coming to school and he or she should consult with the teacher. Yap (2003) pointed out that a child who attends school more frequently may influence the amount of knowledge he or she gains. However, the more the school attendance the less time a child has on labour activities.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

As stated above, child abuse is rampart in schools, in homes and Nigerian society at large. The Ministry of Education and Training has set rules and regulations to guide teachers in protecting learners against abuse but such cases are still on the rise. In addition to that, the Government of Nigeria has put in place a toll free number (9664) in an attempt to curb and apprehend the perpetrators. However, it seems this does not lessen its occurrence. The child protection right Against Abuse has reported that they have received 266 cases of child abuse between January and October 2015. This is quite an alarming figure considering that there are so many cases which go unreported. Many of the abused children are not empowered to report such cases. The Children’s Act (2012) has also been put in place to sensitise the public from this degrading human treatment. In his study, Mndzebele (2009) has also observed that cases of abuse in the schools are still on the rise and some abused learners drop in academic performance. Despite government and non-governmental organizations’ efforts to combat this antisocial behaviour and to sensitise the public on the rights of children, the phenomenon is still prevalent in the Nigerian community and it impacts on learners’ punctuality and study habits among primary school pupils.

1.3 AIMS OF THE STUDY

The major purpose of this study is to evaluate child labour on punctuality and study habits among primary school pupils. Other general objectives of the study are:

  1. To examine the various forms of child labour in Nigeria.
  2. To examine the behavioural characteristics of the abused learners in class.
  3. To examine the effects of child abuse on punctuality and study habits among primary school pupils.
  4. To examine how experiences of child abuse affect the learners’ participation in class.
  5. To examine the relationship between child labour and punctuality and study habits among Primary school pupils.
  6. To examine practical measures to be adopted to alleviate the incidence of child labour.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  1. To examine the various forms of child labour in Nigeria.
  2. To examine the behavioural characteristics of the abused learners in class.
  3. To examine the effects of child abuse on punctuality and study habits among primary school pupils.
  4. To examine how experiences of child abuse affect the learners’ participation in class.
  5. To examine the relationship between child labour, punctuality and study habits among Primary school pupils.
  6. To examine practical measures to be adopted to alleviate the incidence of child labour.

1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

Hypothesis 1

H0: There is no significant effect of child abuse on punctuality and study habits among primary school pupils.

H1: There is a significant effect of child abuse on punctuality and study habits among primary school pupils.

Hypothesis 2

H0: There is no significant relationship between child labour, punctuality and study habits among Primary school pupils.

H1: There is a significant relationship between child labour, punctuality and study habits among Primary school pupils.

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The results of the findings would be of significant to the children, parents, community, teachers, Ministry of Education, educators and curriculum planners in the following ways: It would enlighten children on the importance of school through regular school attendance, which would make them appreciate the value of their academic performance. The results of the findings would make the parents and community to develop positive interest towards their children’s educational pursuits in primary school level. The findings would be of importance to the parents and community at large through the Parent Teachers Association (PTA) on the effect of child labour in student’s attendance and academic performance of the children with possible solutions. The result of the findings would encourage Ministry of Education and curriculum planners to develop strategies that will reduce or eradicate child labour, by introducing assessable schools, reduce or introduce free school fees and provide food supplements. The result of the findings would encourage curriculum planners to introduce appropriate curricular to suite each season of the year. The findings would also make educators to appreciate pupils through awards of certificate of regular attendance to students who deserved it.

1.7    SCOPE OF THE STUDY 

The study is based on the evaluation of child labour on punctuality and study habits among primary school pupils, case study of Eti Osa L.G.A, Lagos state.

1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Child: Is a human being male or female between nine years (9) of age and fourteen (14) years of age, who is in the developmental stage of childhood and is ready to start his/her fundamental basic education.

Labour: Apply to the range of activities which children do like domestic work, to work in the household, farms, hawking or begging that deprived them to their rights to attend School and acquire their educational background

Child Labour: Is any work that the child of between ages nine (9) and fourteen (14) is engaged in, that have effect on the child’s right to attend school or acquire the required educational standard. Also for the purpose of this study, the concept of “child labour” will be defined as children between the ages of 9 and 14 years of age who are involved in economic activities for cash, kind or non-wage incentives.

Academic Performance: Is the student’s ability to study and remember fact, being able to communicate knowledge verbally or written down on a paper. The academic performance of a primary school entitles scores from continuous assessment and the examination of pupils for the academic session.

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