1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
All over the world today, environment pollution is an issue of great concern because of what the environment is to human survival and indeed, the survival of the earth itself. These days, the argument on green house effect is rife everywhere in the world. “If it not green house effect”, it is global warning .Both point to the fact that the earth is polluted. Williams (2006) affirms that it is well recognized that the environment is one of the health. He however paints out that Nigeria suffers from both primary and secondary environmental problems resulting from under development and growth in industrialization. As a result of these environmental problems, human idea and activities are endangered on a daily basis. In view of these threats to the social responsibility Environmental pollution is one of phenomenon that has gained international attention including Nigeria and Rivers State hence Bonny Kingdom. News agencies, health organizations, federal government’s ministries of health have passed information about the menace associated with environmental pollution to the masses. A common problem unique to developing countries is depletion and destruction of natural resource, environmental degradation, and resulting social and economic effects. In these countries, therefore, the crucial field of concern for leaders and policy makers is the environmental issues when creating policy decisions about human development and economic welfare. Because environmental degradation is caused by the following key factors such as industrialization, transportation, population, poverty, soil erosion, congestion and traffic, exploitation of open access resource due to ill-defined property rights, etc, environmental issues must have to be generally adequate taken into account. Along with industrialization and urbanization, the social economy develops in an unparalleled speed, while it inevitably increases the consumption of natural resources and the pressure to protect ecological environment. That is the exploitation of natural resources makes emissions of industrial pollutants increases. The industrial growth finally leads to environmental quality degradation (Peng, 2014). However, there is an indication that economic growth is beneficial to the environment and the two parts mutually promote each other (Beckerman, 2016). There is no definite conclusion drawn yet on the relationships between economic growth and environment quality and it is still needs to be studied further. Reduction of air, water and industrial wastes pollution has turn to be more severe in Nigeria in recent years (Rafia et al, 2017). The rapid growth prior to the economic crisis in 1997 and during the period of economic recovery in a country had increased environmental pollution. Uncontrolled growth with regard for ecological rules remains to be the problem of the day (Sam, 2013). Thus, during the Seventh Plan period, to guarantee the development was balanced and sustainable, the ecological and natural resource matters persistent to be attended. The appropriate institutional, legislative and regulatory instruments were reinforced. Efforts to incorporate environmental thoughts into development planning were strengthened. A market-based approach to tackle ecological and resource matters were commenced and the use of cleaner technologies was promoted. In order to foster and environment-friendly society awareness campaigns and environmental education were also launched. In order to make sure that development is sustainable and resistant steps were taken to ascertain practical, cost-effective, and sensible management approaches that yield multiple benefits. Efforts were continued to tackle air pollution, reduce degradation of rivers, and enhance marine and groundwater quality. By extending the Biodiversity Action Plan to the various states, strengthening land use planning, addressing multiple-use issues in marine areas, expanding the sustainable management of forests the management of natural resources were enhanced. The distressfulness and the long term damaging effect of environmental pollution cannot be over emphasised. If left to prevail, it can contribute to destructive consequences on our wellbeing and economy. This will lead to increase in health and social costs. Hung and Shaw (2004) observed that throughout the last century numerous countries have distinctly presented remarkable levels of economic performance but it is essential to examine the cost related with such success. Whether it is accomplished at the cost of loss of environmental quality and in return or whether there is really any contribution by environmental degradation affecting the economic growth. Pollution affects various sectors of the economy in Nigeria, most importantly the agriculture and petroleum sectors of the economy. All sectors of the economy have an effect on the economic growth of Nigeria. Pollution in Nigeria has caused a huge loss in different sectors which has reduced the economic growth. The control of pollution has helped increase the economic growth but once an area has been polluted it is very hard to control and return the area to its previous state.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Unfortunately, altitude for care for the environment among urban and rural residents in Nigeria is still very low or almost not existing at all. The way environmental resources (i.e. air, water and land) are being abused on daily basis in Rivers, Nigeria has been a great concern for discerning individual, researchers, organizations and governments who spend huge resources (time, money, materials and mental power) on ecological, infrastructural and health-related matters just to ensure sustainable life, livelihood and development. Okebukola (2013) reported that haphazard disposal of gaseous-chemical waste is a major determinant for the spread of gastrointestinal and parasitic diseases in Lagos State. In another study conducted by Adewole (2009), it was revealed that about 10,000 M3 of untreated industrial waste-water are being discharged into lagoon on daily basis which result in high rate of water contamination, freshwater shortage and water-related diseases. Similarly, Akanni (2010) reported that the high volume of noise pollution from places of worship with amplified, motorists, machines and frequent use of power generators in industries and households led to growing numbers of people (particularly those living and working around noisy environs) with hearing difficulties, high blood pressure and other deadly diseases in Rivers state, Nigeria. The general characteristics of a polluted environment are well known, and severe problems of environmental disruption are closely related to the imprudent pursuit of economic growth" as it is found in most developing countries of today. The unprecedented growth in Nigeria’s population and the aggregation of people in cities has led to the pouring of huge concentration of sewage into lakes, rivers and estuaries. What is largely responsible for this is the fact that water supply is inadequate in most Nigerian cities, the sewage facilities are poor and there are no proper waste disposal methods. Lack of city planning coupled with massive rural urban exodus has also contributed to economic retardation. The increasing commercial and industrial activities have also left their impact on the environment, and the tremendous pace and scale of this development has destroyed the natural habitat in several respects. Not only has increased industrialization been accompanied by greater urbanization, environmental damage can also be attributed to this phenomenon.
The aim of this study is to examine environmental pollution and economic retardation in Rivers state. The main objectives are;
Ho: There is no significant impact of environmental pollution on economic retardation in Nigeria.
Hi: There is a significant impact of environmental pollution on economic retardation in Nigeria.
Ho: There is no significant relationship between environmental pollution and economic retardation in Bonny Kingdom.
Hi: There is a significant relationship between environmental pollution and economic retardation in Bonny Kingdom.
The study of the impact of environmental pollution will make the people of Bonny Kingdom especially the women to realize the importance of effective refusal disposal and waste bins and waste control. It will also be significant to people of Bonny Kingdom and Rivers state at large in a way that they will know the proper waste control strategies and how to manage and preserve the environment for the good health of the people and economic growth. It will also be the people living in commercial and industrial areas of Rivers sate. It will also be important so that the people will know the causes and effects of environmental in human health will not be over looked.
This study will be of immense benefit to other researchers who intend to know more on this topic and can also be used by non-researchers to build more on their work.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study is on environmental pollution and economic retardation in Rivers state, a case study of Bonny Kingdom.
1.8 Limitations of study
1.9 Definition of Terms
Air Pollution: Is the introduction of particulates, biological molecules, or other harmful materials into Earth's atmosphere, causing diseases, allergies, death to humans, damage to other living organisms such as animals and food crops, or the natural or built environment.
Socio economic: Socioeconomics is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how societies progress, stagnate, or regress because of their local or regional economy, or the global economy
Environment: This is a collective term used to describe all the living and non-living things that makes up our surroundings.
Economic Retardation: An economic retardation means that there is less spending overall; therefore, people looking to start a new business may decide to delay ventures until demand returns to normal levels.
Environmental Pollution: is the release of chemical waste that causes detrimental effects on the environment. Environmental pollution is often divided into pollution of water supplies, the atmosphere, and the soil.
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