1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
It has been widely accepted that the management of solid waste is a global issue. This issue is even more pronounced in developing countries such as Nigeria in Africa where solid waste management is a major concern. Adeyemi et al, (2012) ascertained that solid waste constitute a major issue in most developing countries. Adeyemi added that waste management is one of the most intractable issues facing city administrators or directors and environmental agencies. Ogwueleka, (2009) reported that solid waste management is one of the greatest challenges or problems facing environmental bodies in Nigeria. As a result of the management problems, Adefemi and Awokunmi, (2009) reported a breakdown of law and order in respect to waste management. They summit that urban centres are experiencing an increased rate of environmental deterioration as a results of indiscriminate dumping of solid waste. Omuta, (2008) noted that one notable flaws in waste management administration in developing countries is the unavailability of a proper waste management policy. His view is that for waste management to work, various aspects of Government services must be brought together under a proper policy to deliver an effective waste management practice. Ogwueleka (2009) argues that some of the approaches used in tackling the waste management problems in Nigeria have recorded a very little success. He observed that, the methods or approaches do not distinguish the different needs and diversities of the different cities in the country. He added that these approaches are capital intensive and may seem unnecessary. Ezeah and Roberts, (2013) observed that the state of solid waste management in Nigeria has been a major concern to stakeholders. Ogwueleka (2009) reported that inefficient collection and unsafe disposal are some of the characteristics of waste management in Nigeria. Ogu (2011) highlighted that about 80 – 90% of the wastes generated in some low level income communities in Nigeria are not collected for safe disposal. Imam et al, (2009) reported that piles of waste are dumped by the road side and other open spaces thereby posing environmental risk and health risk. It is in response to these flaws that (Imam et al., 2008) submitted that solid waste has indeed become an important issue in Nigeria. To support these submissions, (Izugbara and Umoh, 2013) reported that the waste management crisis in the country is already visible. They added that to a large extent, waste management contributes to social, political and environmental costs. These costs are thought to have enormous impacts on the economy and the populace (Izugbara and Umoh, 2013). Omuta, (2008) reported that the major players involved with waste management in Nigeria are the public and the private sector. The public sector could be the government agencies, ministry of environments in various states, or local government bodies. On the other hand, he ascertained that private sector involvement in waste management is driven by private companies. These companies are either partners with government agencies or provide waste management services to companies, commercial premises or members of the public for a fee. He also noted another form of private initiatives in solid waste management; these are the informal waste collectors which collect waste for a fee. This introduction of private companies in waste management became necessary as a result of the degradation of the environment from inefficient waste management practices (Ogu, 2011). Ogbonna et al., (2012) reported that in response to the enormous challenges/problems pose by solid waste management, the Government is taking steps to address these problems by engaging local contractors to evacuate waste. Ogu (2011) added that such steps were necessary in order to bring private sector investment into waste management and to enhance service delivery. However, inefficiency still linger due to lack of coordination on the part of the Government and the lack of expertise on waste management issues by the environmental agencies. The reasons behind inefficient waste management practice in Nigeria have been well looked into. For example, Agunwamba, (2016) reported that there is a general unconcerned attitude on the part of the government towards waste management. In addition, Adeyemi et al, (2012) observed that in Nigeria the management of solid waste revolves mainly around open burning, open dumps, landfilling, reuse/recycling and waste conversion. Arukwe (2012) added that the only management practice adopted widely throughout Nigeria involves disposal of waste on open dumps.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The mountainous heaps of solid wastes that deface Nigerian cities and the continuous discharges of industrial contaminants into streams and rivers without treatment motivated the federal government of Nigeria to promulgate Decree 58 for the establishment of a Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) on 30 December 1988 (Federal Military Government 1988). A national policy on the environment was formed and the goals of the policy include: to secure for all Nigerians a quality of environment adequate for their health and well-being; to raise public awareness and promote understanding of the essential linkages between the environment and development; and to encourage individual and community participation in environmental protection and improvement efforts (FEPA 2015). The implementation of the policy depends on specific actions directed towards major sectors and problem areas of the environment. As regards the solid waste sector, the specific actions desired include collection and disposal of solid waste in an environmentally safe manner; setting up and enforcement of laws, regulations, and standards; encouragement of public participation; environmental monitoring; and imposition of penalties on defaulters to encourage compliance (FEPA 2015, FRN 2011). In spite of the formulation of FEPA and a national environmental policy, the environment has not been adequately protected. Interest is mainly on aesthetics, which is rarely achieved. Waste collection is irregular and restricted to the major cities. Improperly sited open dumps deface several cities, thereby endangering public health by encouraging the spread of odors and diseases, uncontrolled recycling of contaminated goods, and pollution of water sources (Adegoke 2015, Singh and others 1995). The poor state of waste management is attributable to an inadequately formulated and poorly implemented environmental policy, among other factors. Besides, waste management is a multidimensional problem that has been aggravated in Nigeria by rapid urbanization and population growth rate. Therefore, the state environmental agencies are continuously faced with an increasing amount of solid wastes to handle. Neglect of the economic, social, psychological, political and cultural life of Nigerians in the formulation and implementation of programs has also contributed immensely to unsuccessful waste management. The intent here is to present a critical discussion of the problems of solid waste management in Nigeria.
1.3 AIMS OF THE STUDY
The major purpose of this study is to evaluate the problems of solid waste management in Nigeria. Other general objectives of the study are:
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: Solid waste management has not been effective in Nigeria
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will educate the general public, stakeholders in environmental management, students, government and policy makers on the problems of solid waste management focusing on Nigeria with a view of identifying management strategies to combat the menace associated with poor solid waste management. Therefore, there is need to understand the various ways individuals participate in environmental protection and waste management especially at the house hold level with a view to integrating them into the environmental management program since it is generally believed and accepted that solid waste constitutes the second most contributing source of waste generated anywhere, anytime worldwide. The study would be relevant to decision and policy makers on environment, stakeholders and the general public because it is expected that the solid waste management strategies in Nigeria would be adequately analyzed at the end of the study. This study would serve as a reference material to researchers, NGO’s and public institutions. This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is based on evaluating the problems of solid waste management in Nigeria, a case study of selected markets in kano state.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Waste: Is the leftovers, used products whether liquid or solid having no economic value or demand and which must be disposed or thrown away
Waste Management: It refers to the act to maintain acceptable environmental quality, sound public health and creation of aesthetic value.
Dumpsites: Also known as traditional landfills are excavated pieces of land or pits where waste materials are stored.
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