1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
For the sustenance and dynamism of keep, every growing society is defined by the erection of either permanent or temporary structures for the aim of shelter that is that the second necessity of life (George, 2016). The search for housing has tremendously raised urbanization and conjointly the designed surroundings resulting to various environmental impacts and environmental degradation that is recently being occupied to human activities with construction projects/works taking a lion’s share. In line with rubin and Davidson (2011); Babawale (2004); CIOB (2004) and Majumdar (2013), environmental Impact per square measure needs to explain some implications of human activities on the environment. At the best possible level, this includes the study of interactions among all forms and activities of the environment. A lot of normally, Environmental Impact refers to effects of human activities on his surroundings (Bertone, 2013). According to Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) (2008), the various environmental impacts may be connected to the mass flooding in Ibadan and Lagos cities of Nigeria as a result of blockage of water ways and channels. Also the mass pollution of water and air in Brass Island of Bayelsa is also traced to human activities like mining, refining and construction activities (FEPA, 2008). The menace is also affecting many other cities in the world like the alarming rate of pollution in Abu Dhabi city of the United Arab Emirate (UAE) and Pittsburgh- a densely industrialized city of the United State of America which has the highest record of air pollution because of manufacturing of Construction equipment (UNESCO, 2011). The concurrence reclamation and development in urban centre (Lagos Island) earth is that the major reason for the recent flooding in urban centre (Lagos Island). The coast into that the lagoon extents its banks at the high-water periods has been designed up, thereby inflicting the lagoon to overflow its banks leading to flooding. A review made by Koleosho and Adeyinka (2013); Horsley (2011) and Hardy (2007), also shows the need for cross examination of the activities of the built environment that causes environmental changes so as to identify their impacts for the purpose of mitigation. This is collaborated by the UN-Habitat report in Nigeria (2004) that “The design, construction, maintenance and use of structures have impacts on the environment; some of these significant impacts include Energy Impact, Ecological Impact, Visual Impact as well as Material impact”. Building construction projects in Nigeria have both direct and indirect impacts on the environment. The identification of likely impacts on the environment in order of severity is a task that needs to be accomplished for the realization of a minimum effect of construction project on the environment (Koleosho and Adeyinka, 2013). Section 38 of the 2013 Act of Federal Environmental Protection Agency of Nigeria defines the environment as including water, air, land and all plants/animals or human beings living therein as well as the inter-relationship that exist between and among them. To this effect, the impacts of building construction projects are felt by all the elements that constitute the Environment (Howard 2000 and Chrisna, 2013). The process of identifying, predicting, evaluating and mitigating the biophysical, social and other relevant effects of developmental proposal prior to major commitment is Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) (Barlett and Prior, 2013). According to International Association for Impact Assessment Act (IAIA, 2000), the purpose of environmental impact assessment is to ensure that decision makers consider all possible impacts and their respective effects when deciding a project. In view of this, it should be used as a decision making tool rather than decision aiding tool. In Nigeria the activities of the international impact assessment act are not felt which result to increase in pollution and other environmental degradations. Environmental protection needs activities on several levels; from preventing heating to safeguarding living beings. The results of poor air quality or harmful chemicals and supporting basic wants should even be thought of for the survival of men. The propounded ways by the UN-Habitat in Nigeria (2004) to protect and save our environment include, the use of environmental effective housing through improved energy efficiency of buildings and an effective economic growth through more efficient use of resources such as re-use, recycling and recovery of waste. The National Environmental Pollution Act 2013 (NEP) has also empowered many government agencies to actively monitor the air for pollutants, inspect emission sources, provide compliance assistance to industries as well as initiate enforcement actions such as educating the public about the air quality issues. They are equally concerned within the interference and regulation of pollution from industries, municipal waste product treatment facilities similarly as observation construction sites and concrete areas. All these are mitigating measures to cut back the impact of construction projects on the surroundings but however their application and social control needs to be investigated in Nigeria. Effective protection of the environment is critical to sustainable development but Dietz, York and Rosa (2011) opines that human development and growth will be short lived if we do not conserve the natural environment and its resources. In view of this, there is need to assess the environmental impacts of building construction projects to promote sustainability.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
In Nigeria, it is obvious that there has been purported improvement in the practice of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), as it regards proper and sustainable construction of developmental projects. Moreover the construction of new buildings, infrastructure and industries, the production and the transport of building materials as well as waste disposal require an increasing amount of bio-productive areas. The significance of this impact requires its measure, here performed by ecological footprint analysis. These and other global environmental and human-related issues encouraged an increasing number of designers, planners, developers and building users to provide more sustainable urban planning and building construction strategies. The application of sustainability principles and environmental accounting methods to building construction is a consequence of the global environmental problems and it aims to reduce the direct and indirect impact of construction industry with respect to two main issues: air pollution due to greenhouse gas emissions; depletion of both renewable and un-renewable natural resources (petroleum, natural gas, materials). One of the main objectives of the application of environmental impact assessment methods to building construction is to evaluate the impact of common and alternative constructive technologies and materials and its effect to environmental problems.
1.3 AIMS OF THE STUDY
The major purpose of this study is to examine evaluation of environmental impact of building construction in urban areas. Other general objectives of the study are:
1.4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H02: There is no significant relationship between building construction and environmental management of urban areas in Nigeria.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study will be of great benefit to policy makers, building construction professionals, national environmental agency, students and researchers. The study will enable environmental managers have an in-depth understanding of the effects of building construction on the environment and the way to assess the problem associated with it. It will also be readily available for academic consumption.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is based on evaluation of environmental impact of building construction in urban areas: case study of Festac town, Amuwo Odofin Lagos.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Environment: The sum total of all surroundings of a living organism, including natural forces and other living things, which provide conditions for development and growth as well as of danger and damage.
Impact: The actions of one object coming forcibly into contact with another, a marked effect or influence.
Building:A relatively permanent enclosed construction over a plot of land,having a roof and usually windows and often more than one level,used for any of a wide variety of activities, as living, entertaining, or manufacturing.
Construction: Clearing, dredging, excavating, and grading of land and other activity associated with buildings, structures, or other types of real property such as bridges, dams, roads.
Urban Areas: Is the region surrounding a city. Most inhabitants of urban areas have non-agricultural jobs. Urban areas are very developed, meaning there is a density of human structures such as houses, commercial buildings, roads, bridges, and railways. "Urban area" can refer to towns, cities, and suburbs
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