1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Pollution has been known to be in existence for a very long time and much had been studied on its relationship with the global growth in cities. The industrial revolution brought with its technological progress such as exploration of oil and its virtually universal use throughout different industries have aggravated the concentrations of pollution in recent time. Environmental pollution is the contamination of the physical and biological components of the earth/atmosphere system to such an extent that normal environmental processes are adversely affected. Obafemi (2008) refers to environmental pollution as the process whereby various harmful substances are added to the environment (i.e. land, water, air, and the acoustic environment etc.) by human and natural activities. The harmful substances called contaminants released into the environment (i.e. water, land, air) cause harm or discomfort or damage to humans or other living organisms. However, pollution can be naturally occurring substances, but are considered contaminants when it exceeds natural levels (Hyman, 2009). Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) (2010) views pollution as man-aided alteration of chemical, physical or biological quality of the environment to the extent that is detrimental to the environment or beyond acceptable limits. In addition, FEPA (2007) presented pollution as “any substances in air which could harm man, other animals, vegetation etc. Environmental pollution has become an unending problem in the modern society and it is now becoming a threat to the livelihood of the people. The air we breathe, the water we drink and the soil on which most of our food is grown, constitute the main elements of our environment (Harrop, 2009). Nature maintains that composition of these elements within certain ranges so as to ensure our survival on this planet, but in modern days, man depends on better methods and techniques to achieve his aims for better standard of living e.g. to provide good food, transport, shelter, good roads and so on. His efforts both technologically and industrially have resulted in the exploitation of the earth’s resources which in effect has led to environmental degradation. Pollution of the environment is likened to different sources. For instance, air pollution results from the discharge of toxic materials from man’s domestic and industrial activities into the air which remain suspended in the air for a period of time. More importantly, there are about five major pollutants that are constantly discharged into the air namely carbon monoxide, particulate matter, sulphur dioxide, hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxides. These pollutants are obtained from burning of agricultural combustion, space heating etc. (Abumaizar and Smith, 2010; Makino, 2009). Carbon monoxide results from incomplete combustion of fuel in engines, sulphur dioxide results from burning of coal and oil both in utility and industrial plants. Petroleum refining is also a major source of sulphur oxide (SO2). The particulate matter includes soot, lead, asbestos, dust which varies in size ranging from the visible to the microscopic components. Horsfall and Spiff (2009) highlighted the sources of hydrocarbons as evaporation of industrial solvents, combustion of weed as well as emissions from internal combustion engines using gasoline while the harmful nitrogen oxides result from certain combustion processes industrial boil from plants and transportation vehicle. Similarly, Godish (2014) industrial effluents, dust, smoke, solid waste and so on, are the products of industrialization and urbanization. The introduction of these has led to adverse effect of environmental pollution on the health of man, animals, both aquatic and terrestrial and of course on plants. On the whole, man is essentially responsible for many of the environmental problems encountered by him suggesting that the unwanted by-products of man’s attempts to improve his standard of living have contributed largely to the deterioration of the environment (Harries, 2010). In a related development, environmental pollution has been seen as a living phenomenon in Nigeria especially in the Niger Delta region of the country in which Rivers state is not exempted. This region has recorded several cases of the effect of pollution such as gas flaring, oil spillage, black soot in their environment due to pervasive presence and operation of oil and gas companies in the area (Nduka and Orisakwe, 2009). Many people were of the opinion that the Niger Delta region is a troublesome region. This statement is to the outsiders who know few or nothing about the environmental deterioration and exploitation taking place in different dimensions in the area. Ikpatt and Scott (2014) affirmed that there is trouble in the Niger Delta but the truth about the scenario in the region is that the whole components of the environment have been degraded and this in effect may generate chaos from the inhabitants of the area. This study therefore focused on the role of environmental adult programmes in curbing the incidence and effects of black soot in Rivers state. Finally, the study suggested various ways to reduce the rate at which pollution occurs in the study area.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Black Soot pollution is a result of long years of careless, reckless, irresponsible and unsustainable burning and use of fossil fuel. When soot builds up in the air, it eventually deposits onto surfaces due to random collisions with surfaces. When particles collide and grow in size, they gain enough mass to deposit due to gravity. Other environmental factors may possibly shorten the time necessary for soot to deposit, but it should be understood that eventually the soot will deposit onto surfaces Black soot is hazardous to health as the toxic pollutants of inhale-able sizes of between 10 -2.5 micrometer can penetrate into human lungs and blood stream to cause respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, such as cancer. Air pollution is associated with a number of adverse health impacts. Air pollution particularly affects the most vulnerable in society: children and older people, and those with pre-existing heart and lung conditions. A large range of studies and reports have confirmed the links between air pollution and ill health and premature death, and the complex cumulative impacts of different pollutants on health are increasingly well understood. In Rivers state, much attention is given on general industrial pollution and pollution in oil industries with little reference on damage of pollution caused by mobile transportation sources of air pollution. The situation of increased pollution from mobile transportation sources is on the increase in per capital vehicle ownership, thus resulting to high congestion on the Port-Harcourt city roads and increase in the concentration of pollutants in the air, consequently, increasing health risk on human population. It is therefore important to examine the concept of air pollution, agents of air pollution, sources of air pollution, unsafe practices resulting to increased air pollution, air emissions reduction strategies and air quality improvement action plans and the role of environmental adult programmes in curbing the effect of this problem at hand.
1.2. AIMS OF THE STUDY
The major purpose of this study is to examine roles of environmental adult programmes in curbing the incidence and effect of black soot. Other general objectives of the study are:
1. To examine the sources of black soot in Obio/Akpor L.G.A, Rivers state.
2. To examine the effect of black soot in Obio/Akpor environment.
3. To examine the roles of environmental adult programmes in curbing the incidence and effect of black soot in Obio/Akpor L.G.A, Rivers state.
4. To examine the environmental impacts of particle (soot) pollution.
5. To examine the relationship between roles of environmental education programmes and the effect of black soot.
6. To examine how the government has investigated and find a solution to the problem.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What are the sources of black soot in Obio/Akpor L.G.A, Rivers state?
2. What are the effects of black soot in Obio/Akpor environment?
3. What are the roles of environmental adult programmes in curbing the incidence and effect of black soot in Obio/Akpor L.G.A, Rivers state?
4. What are the environmental impacts of particle (soot) pollution?
5. What is the relationship between roles of environmental education programmes and the effect of black soot?
6. How has the government investigated and find a solution to the problem?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study would be utilized by the government at both Federal and the State levels through their various Ministries like, Ministry of Environment, Education, Health, and Information. It will be beneficial for these ministries in the area of policy formulation, most especially in the area of educating public in the schools and out-of- school. It will assist them when formulating laws that will promote human health and protect the environment. The citizenry will also benefit greatly from this study, as the study will reveal how a person’s carefree attitude about the environment can be costly not only to himself but others. Non-governmental organization (NGO’s) in the areas of health and environment will also benefit. This study will guide them in the areas of production and distribution of educational materials to the public. The information will go a long way in helping the teachers, most especially Adult educator, environmental educators and health educators will also benefit from the study in such a way that it would help them to emphasize the link between good health and clean environment to the school public. Media houses and others who are charged with the responsible of awareness creation will also benefit from the study.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is based on the roles of environmental adult programmes in curbing the incidence and effect of black soot in Obio/Akpor L.G.A, Rivers state.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Black Soot: Soot is carbon particles resulting from the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. Its colour is black; therefore it’s called “Black Carbon”. Soot contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, (PAHs) and heavy metals. Fresh soot particles might be surface reactive.
Environmental adult Education: It refers to efforts in teaching environmental issues and how individuals and businesses can manage or change their lifestyles and their ecosystems in order to achieve sustainable existence. The overarching goal of this field of study is to educate global citizens in order for them to gain sustainable lives within their respective societies.
OTHER SIMILAR ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE PROJECTS AND MATERIALS