1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Health, safety and environment (HSE) management ensure the health and safety of workers and compliance with HSE construction requirements. The concept of Health, safety and environment (HSE) has become an important part of organizations and multinational companies the world over. The 2010 British Petroleum’s’ deep water horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, point out the importance that must be placed on the perception of safety culture by personnel in the petroleum sector. These mishaps and accidents have a wide range of impacts; apart from the irrevocable damage to the corporate and social image of organizations involved, it could lead to reduction in their financial standing. On that note, a positive safety culture can be defined as: ‘a set of values, perceptions, attitudes and patterns of behaviour with regards to safety showed by members of the organization, as well as set of policies, practices and procedures relating to the reduction of employees’ exposure to occupational risks, implemented at every level of the organization, and reflecting a high level of concern and commitment to the prevention of accidents and illnesses’. However, safety culture has broadened from the context of mishaps and calamities to include the environment and health issues. However, perception of HSE culture by personnel has not been very rigorous as it should be. Nigeria is a West African federal republic strategically located with its southern coastal Niger-delta region opening into the gulf of Guinea, with vast petroleum and natural gas reserves. As at December 2015, Nigeria (including offshore deep-water installations) had proven oil reserves of about 37 billion barrels and about 180 trillion cubic feet of natural gas; this indicates that Nigeria has the second largest crude oil reserves in Africa as well as the ninth largest natural gas reserves in the world. In order to extract and export these natural resources, the Nigeria petroleum industry has to deal with external issues that shape its HSE culture; oil spill pollution that destroys flora, fauna, contamination of rivers and streams, acid rain and health problems results in loss of livelihood for the poor masses who do not have much use for petroleum as they depend on the environment for food through farming and fishing. The ‘environment’ facet involves efforts to prevent practices that cause pollution, efficient waste management to ensure that waste is reduced as far as reasonably practicable and efforts to protect environmental resources; flora, fauna etc. ‘Safety’ covers relevant as well as appropriate training and adequate protection for employees, visitors, facilities and equipment. Under the ‘health’ facet, employee health and wellbeing are fervently protected from working processes or by products as far as is reasonable possible. In addition, work environment is designed in such a way that adequate ergonomic features are considered, noise levels are maintained at acceptable levels and personal protection equipment are provided and used as required. Disasters have remained a recurring decimal in the events of mankind over the years and its intensity frequency appears to be increasing recently. Disasters occur when at least ten people are killed and/or 100 people or more are affected and/or an appeal for international assistance is made or a state of emergency declared. Health care system refers to the various levels of health care delivery services such as the primary, secondary and tertiary (Egwu, 2014). The impact of disasters on public health and health care system are devastating and numerous. Among them include: injuries, illness, death; overwhelming of medical resources and health services; destruction of hospitals and health centres; disruption of routine health services and preventive activities with attendant increase in morbidity and mortality. Others are increase potential for communicable diseases among population and exacerbating environmental hazards; causing of generalized panic or paralyzing trauma, anxiety, depression, neurosis, and sometimes post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at epidemic levels; disruption of food supply to communities leading to famine, starvation and specific micronutrient deficiencies. More so, there is population displacement resulting in large spontaneous or organized population epidemics of communicable diseases in both displaced and host communities as well as high refugee population (Noji, 2008). Public Health Workers/Nurses play significant roles in protecting the health and safety of communities, families, and individuals in time of disasters or emergencies. Since a disaster results in a vast ecological breakdown between humans and their environment, the stricken communities need extra ordinary efforts to cope with it. Therefore, the health care providers play major roles in preventing, preparing for, responding to and recovering of humans from disasters or emergencies (American Public Health Association, 1996). This study will examine concept of disasters, impacts of disasters and implications on health, safety and environment.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
It is not unreasonable to believe that the Kaduna Refinery and Petrol Chemical need a Disaster Health safety Management Plan considering that it is located in a region where conflicts can arise. Disaster whether man-made or natural disasters are a recurring decimal in many parts of the world. Nigeria is not an exception. In the developed world, there are proper planning and response when disasters happen. State resources are brought to bear on and to ameliorate the negative consequences of disasters. This is the stage at which countries in the developing world falter. While the industrialized economies are proactive in emergency management, the low developing economies (LDEs) are reactive, often with dire consequences in terms of containment of the effects of disasters and their accompanying destruction. In Nigeria and Kaduna Refinery and Petrol Chemical in particular, problems of disaster management are many and they include poor coordination of emergency response, lack of proper equipment, poorly kept records and data, absence of political will and rampant political corruption. The act establishing the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) of Nigeria makes specific provision for the funding of post-disaster recovery and rehabilitation as well as requiring that a disaster management plan should be prepared for a specific state and should form an integral part of the state’s overall integrated development plan, such a disaster management plan must indicate measures to reduce the vulnerability of disaster prone areas, communities and households, as well as the appropriate strategies for prevention and mitigation. But despite of this provision, disaster risk management in Nigeria has being characterized with inefficiency arising from mismanagement or unmanaged mitigation as well as post emergency situations. This is owing to unclear processes for accessing funds to manage disaster by organizations or institutions involved, especially when such funds is to be provided by the federal government. These issues will form the problematic of this paper.
1.3. AIMS OF THE STUDY
The major purpose of this study is to examine the impact of health safety and environment on disaster management. Other general objectives of the study are:
1. To examine the environmental health actions in the prevention, preparedness, response and recovery stages of the disaster-management cycle.
2. To examine the roles of Health, safety and environment officers in disaster management.
3. To examine the impact of health safety and environment on disaster management in Kaduna Refinery and petrol chemical.
4. To examine the challenges faced by health, safety and environmental officers in Kaduna Refinery and Petrol Chemical in management of disaster.
5. To examine the relationship between health care and disaster management in Kaduna Refinery and petrol chemical.
6. To examine the Kaduna Refinery and Petrol Chemical readiness when the population faces risks to their lives and health.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. How are the environmental health actions in the prevention, preparedness, response and recovery stages of the disaster-management cycle?
2. What are the roles of Health, safety and environment officers in disaster management?
3. What is the impact of health safety and environment on disaster management in Kaduna Refinery and petrol chemical?
4. What are the challenges faced by health, safety and environmental officers in Kaduna Refinery and Petrol Chemical in management of disaster?
5. What is the relationship between health care and disaster management in Kaduna Refinery and petrol chemical?
6. How is the Kaduna Refinery and Petrol Chemical readiness when the population faces risks to their lives and health?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H0: There is no significant impact of health safety and environment on disaster management in Kaduna Refinery and petrol chemical.
H1: There is a significant impact of health safety and environment on disaster management in Kaduna Refinery and petrol chemical
H0: There is no relationship between health care and disaster management in Kaduna Refinery and petrol chemical.
` H1: There is a significant relationship between health care and disaster management in Kaduna Refinery and petrol chemical.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings would be significant to industries, government, individuals as well as the society at large. The result would also help individuals to understand the effects of certain processes and at the same time increase their understanding at the safety assessment associated with using health safety and environment. Similarly, the result of this research would help in increasing and understanding the awareness of disaster in Nigeria and adverse effect on human health, as well as know the remedies to mitigate the health risk associated with emergencies either in the work place or in our environment. However, this study would serve as insight to general public particularly for further study by researchers in this field.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is based on the impact of health safety and environment on disaster management in Kaduna Refinery and Petrol Chemical (KRPC), Kaduna State.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Health: Health, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), is "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Health may be defined as the ability to adapt and manage physical, mental and social challenges throughout life.
Safety: Relative freedom from danger, risk, or threat of harm, injury, or loss to personnel and/or property, whether caused deliberately or by accident. See also security.
Environment: The sum total of all surroundings of a living organism, including natural forces and other living things, which provide conditions for development and growth as well as of danger and damage.
Health safety and environment: Health, safety and environment (HSE) refers to a branch, or department, within a company that is responsible for the observance and protection of occupational health and safety rules and regulations along with environmental protection. Health, safety and environment (HSE) is also often referred to as environmental health and safety (EHS) or safety, health and environment (SHE).
Disaster: A disaster is a serious disruption, occurring over a relatively short time, of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental loss and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources
Disaster management: Is the organization and management of resources and responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspects of emergencies, in particular preparedness, response and recovery in order to lessen the impact of disasters.
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