1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Solid Waste Management has remained an intractable environmental problem in Nigeria. This issue has shown in form of loads of indiscriminately disposed heaps of uncovered waste and illegal dumpsites along major roads and at street corners in cities and urban areas. It has multiplied by the speedy urbanization and population increase which led to the generation of enormous quantities of solid waste which are often discarded by open dumping. Rushbroke (2013) describes open dumping of municipal solid waste as a primitive stage of waste disposal, practiced by three fourths of countries and territories round the world. Uncovered dumps are the main causes of environmental pollution and public health concerns in many developing countries including Nigeria. These open waste dumps usually contain a mixture of general waste and toxic, infectious or radioactive wastes and are susceptible to burning and exposure to scavengers. According to Babanawo (2013), waste generation is greatly influenced by geographic and physical factors. The factors are: location geographically, year, usage of kitchen waste food grinders, waste collection frequency and the characteristics of the service area. There are a number of major risks and impacts of the dumpsites on the environment. For example, open burning leading to air pollution , as a result of emission of greenhouse gases such as methane and carbon dioxide; the air emissions generated as a result of decay of waste may contaminate air, surface and groundwater sources; fire outbreaks and explosions causes risks to the public health as well. The release of greenhouse gases, rodents and fly infestation and irritating effects are among health and environmental impacts of improper solid waste management. Disbursing of wastes by wind and scavenging by birds, animals and waste pickers creates aesthetic nuisance. Bad odor emanating due to the degradation of solid waste in the dumpsites has nuisance effect and reduces economic and social values in the locality. The solid waste in many dumpsites is directly increasing global concern over public health impacts leads to environmental pollution, in particular, the environmental quality and human health risks associated with the waste dumps. About a quarter of diseases facing mankind today occur to prolonged exposure to environmental pollution according to the World Health Organization estimation. However, there seems to be no clearly stated guidelines at the national or state levels on how to deal with these dumpsites in a sustainable manner, precisely in the developing countries where ironically the burden of environmental pollution seems to be highest. Land filing has been the most common method of solid waste disposal generated by different communities for many years (Komils et al., 2013). Three types of landfills are an integral part of most solid waste systems. They include the open dump, the semi-controlled landfill, and the sanitary landfill. The majority of urban centers in the developing world (including Africa) use open dumping as their principal disposal method (Rushbrook, 2013). This showcases a variety of problems as the open dumps expose human beings, animals and the environment to serious risks. Majority of local authorities happens not to pay adequate attention to the solid waste dumps, because they do not know better systems and what happens there is out of their sights. It is important to operate them efficiently as possible so as to mitigate any health and environmental disasters that may result from the neglect of waste dumps. Provision of adequate sanitation and water facilities in urban areas is an important means of ensuring health and well-being of the people living in cities, as well as protection of the environment. Ayoola et al (2012) wrote on Assessment of Housing Sanitation and Waste Management Practices in the Residential Core Areas of Oshogbo, Osun State Nigeria. They noted that good environmental condition and livability of these settlements are affected partly by inadequate of infrastructural facilities which is a major factor that determines the level of sanitation and that the government should ensure that existing laws and regulations guiding environmental sanitation and health be reviewed and also enforced with stiffer actions in order to make it more effective. Also so, they recommended that in order to avoid or minimize waste dumps, some strategies such as more frequent collection of waste could be implemented, while continuous educational campaigns informing the disadvantages of a dirty area is also an important way of motivating people to keep the community clean and this may reduce the dumping problem.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
In Nigeria, Waste disposal remains a contentious issue, and with no end in sight, refuse is dumped on roadways, pedestrian work ways or even dropped in drainages or streams and rivers. The situation is more alarming during the rainy season as water no longer flows freely along the gutters; it remains stagnant, creating the conditions for mosquito to breed and also the spread of vector borne diseases like malaria. The rapid rate of urbanization witnessed in most Nigeria cities contributed to high increase in waste generation which has outgrown the capacity to evacuate them. Onibokun and Kumuyi (2013) confirm that whenever urbanization gets out of control, it poses a big challenge to urban management and government, with waste management inclusive. The problem of urban waste management in Nigeria persists due to many factors which include the rapid rate of uncontrolled and unplanned urbanization of majority of our states. In Osun state, where Oshogbo is situated several attempts have been made to improve on proper solid waste management and sanitation in the State. These efforts consist of the mandatory sanitation which takes the last Saturdays of every month. Acquisition of the waste disposing vehicles by the government which will be going through the state to collect household waste, construction of boreholes by government, organizations and individuals, channelization of major rivers among others. Despite these efforts, the problem of waste management still exists.
1.3 AIMS OF THE STUDY
The major aim of the study is to examine waste disposal in Oshogbo; a modern system of garbage disposal. Other specific objectives of the study include;
1. To examine the sources of solid waste in Oshogbo metropolis;
2. To examine the stages involved in effective waste disposal
3. To examine the effect of solid waste disposal on quality of life;
4. To examine the challenges of effective waste disposal in Oshogbo metropolis
5. To examine modern systems of waste disposal in Oshogbo metropolis.
6. To examine the solutions to improper waste disposal in Oshogbo metropolis
1.4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What are the sources of solid waste in Oshogbo metropolis?
2. What are the stages involved in effective waste disposal?
3. What are the effects of solid waste disposal on quality of life?
4. What are the challenges of effective waste disposal in Oshogbo metropolis?
5. What are the modern systems of waste disposal in Oshogbo metropolis?
6. What are the solutions to improper waste disposal in Oshogbo metropolis?
H0: solid waste disposal has no significant effect of on quality of life of residents of Oshogbo metropolis.
H1: solid waste disposal has a significant effect of on quality of life of residents of Oshogbo metropolis.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study would be of immense benefit towards the elaborating of waste management, the implementation of waste sanitation equipment, use of appropriate technologies and efficient facilities suitable for environmental protection to be introduced and utilized for the benefit of all in the waste-polluted environs in Nigeria. This study would also be of immense benefit to students, researchers and scholars who are interested in developing further studies on the subject matter.
The study is restricted to waste disposal in Oshogbo metropolis; a modern system of garbage dumping
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Financial constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview)
Time constraint: The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Waste: derives from the Latin uastus, meaning to ravage, to leave desolate, or to fail to husband or cultivate. Hence, of the varieties of waste, ‘technical inefficiency’ is probably closest in meaning to traditional usage. ‘Technical inefficiency’ simply means that the managers of an entity fail to minimize cost or maximize output because they are not using the best technology available.
Waste disposal: is all the activities and actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal. This includes amongst other things, collection, transport, treatment and disposal of waste together with monitoring and regulation. It also encompasses the legal and regulatory framework that relates to waste management encompassing guidance on recycling etc.
Garbage: is referred to as rubbish or waste, especially domestic refuse.
Modern: relating to, or characteristic of the present or the immediate past, of, relating to, or characteristic of a period extending from a relevant remote past to the present time modern history, involving recent techniques, methods, or ideas .
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